Some potential effects of population growth. Here we consider two- one emphasizing the interaction of population with natural resources; the other emphasizing the interaction of population with technology.
Malthus began by noticing that “food is necessary to the existence of man” and that “the passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present state.” He concluded that “the power of population is infinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man.” According to Malthus; the only check on population growth “misery and vice.” Attempts by charities or governments to alleviate poverty were counterproductive; he argued; because they merely allowed the poor to have more children; placing even greater strains on society’s productive capabilities.
Malthus failed to foresee that growth in mankind’s ingenuity would more than offset the effects of a larger population. Pesticides; fertilizers; mechanized farm equipment; new crop varieties; and other technological advances that Malthus never imagined have allowed each farmer to feed ever greater numbers of people. Even with more mouths to feed; fewer farmers are necessary because each farmer is so productive. Today; fewer than 2% of Americans work on farms; producing enough food to feed the nation and some excess to export as well.
There is now little reason to think that an ever expanding population will overwhelm food production and doom mankind to poverty.
The kremeriam model :
While Malthus saw population growth as a threat to rising living standards; economist Michael Kremer has suggested that world population growth is a key driver of advancing economic prosperity. If there are more people; Kremer argues; then there are more scientists; inventors; and engineers to contribute to innovation and technological progress.
If technological progress is more rapid when there are more people to discover things; then the more populous region should have experienced more rapid growth.
Kremer cocludes from this evidence that a large population is a prerequisite for technological advance. Thus of populatin increase there should also be increase in technology for the growth of economy otherwise it leads to low growth (poor economy).