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Job analysis methods can be categorized into three basic types:
1. Observation Method: Observation of work activities and worker behaviors is a method of job analysis which can be used independently or in combination with other methods of job analysis. Three methods of job analysis based on observation are:
2. Interview: In this method, the Analyst interviews the employee, his supervisor and other concerned persons and record answers to relevant questions. The interviewer asks job related questions and a standard format is used to record the data. The limitation of this method is that it does not provide accurate information because the employee may not provide accurate information to protect his own interest. Success of this method depends upon the rapport between the analyst and the employee.
3. Questionnaire: In this method properly drafted questionnaires are sent to jobholders. Structured questionnaires on different aspects of a job are developed. Each task is described in terms of characteristics such as frequency, significance, difficulty and relationship to overall performance. The jobholders give their rating of these dimensions. The ratings obtained are analyzed and a profile of actual job is developed. This method provides comprehensive information about a job. The limitation of this method is that it is time consuming and costly.
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