Job analysis is the formal process of identifying the content of a job in terms activities involved and attributes needed to perform the work and identifies major job requirements. Job analysis was conceptualized by two of the founders of industrial/organizational psychology, Frederick Taylor and Lillian Moller Gilbreth in the early 20th century.  Job analyses provide information to organizations which helps to determine which employees are best fit for specific jobs.

Industrial/organizational psychologists are often the professionals who perform job analyses. These professionals use either a task-oriented or worker-oriented approach. The task-oriented approach focuses on identifying each individual task involved in performing the job well. The worker-oriented approach focuses on the attributes need in a prospective employee to perform the job successfully.

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