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In computing, a uniform resource locator (URL) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource.
A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI) but in many technical documents and verbal discussions URL is often used as a synonym for URI.
Every URL consists of some of the following: the scheme name (commonly called protocol), followed by a colon, two slashes,[note 1] then, depending on scheme, a server name (exp. ftp., www., smtp., etc.) followed by a dot (.) then a domain name[note 2] (alternatively, IP address), a port number, the path of the resource to be fetched or the program to be run, then, for programs such as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts, a query string, and an optional fragment identifier.
The syntax is:
The scheme name defines the namespace, purpose, and the syntax of the remaining part of the URL. Software will try to process a URL according to its scheme and context. For example, a web browser will usually dereference the URL https://example.org:80 by performing an HTTP request to the host at example.org, using port number 80. The URL mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org may start an e-mail composer with the address email@example.com in the To field.
Other examples of scheme names include https:, gopher:, wais:, ftp:. URLs with https as a scheme (such as https://example.com/) require that requests and responses will be made over a secure connection to the website. Some schemes that require authentication allow a username, and perhaps a password too, to be embedded in the URL, for example ftp://firstname.lastname@example.org. Passwords embedded in this way are not conducive to secure working, but the full possible syntax is
Website addresses, or URLs, must meet the following standards: