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Government-to-Government (abbreviated G2G) is the online non-commercial interaction between Government organisations, departments, and authorities and other Government organisations, departments, and authorities.
G2G systems generally come in one of two types:
Internal facing - joining up a single Governments departments, agencies, organisations and authorities.
External facing - joining up multiple Governments information systems.
G2G services take place at two levels: at the local or domestic level and at the international level. G2G services are transactions between the central-state government, state-local governments, and between department-level and attached agencies and bureaus. G2E services are specialized services that cover only government employees, such as online services of payrolls, tax information, the provision of human resource training and development that improve the bureaucracy's day-to-day functions and dealings with citizens. Both projects also enable significant reduction in administrative costs by empowering employees and citizens to manage their own transactions. These projects help Governments to bring about a Citizen-Centric focus by maximizing the benefits offered by self-service.
Recognising the increasing importance of electronics, the Government of India established the Department of Electronics in 1970. The subsequent establishment of the National Informatics centre (NIc) in 1977 was the first major step towards e-Governance in India as it brought ‘information’ and its communication in focus. In the early 1980s, use of computers was confined to very few organizations. The advent of personal computers brought the storage, retrieval and processing capacities of computers to Government offices.
By the late 1980s, a large number of government officers had computers but they were mostly used for ‘word processing’. Gradually, with the introduction of better softwares, computers were put to other uses like managing databases and processing information. Advances in communications technology further improved the versatility and reach of computers, and many Government departments started using I cT for a number of applications like tracking movement of papers and files, monitoring of development programmes, processing of employees’ pay rolls, generation of reports etc.
However, the main thrust for e-Governance was provided by the launching of NIcNET in 1987 – the national satellite-based computer network. This was followed by the launch of the District Information System of the National Informatics centre (DISNIc) programme to computerize all district offices in the country for which free hardware and software was offered to the State Governments. NI cNET was extended via the State capitals to all district headquarters by 1990.
In the ensuing years, with ongoing computerization, teleconnectivity and internet connectivity, came a large number of e-Governance initiatives, both at the Union and State levels. A National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development was constituted in May 1998.
While recognising Information Technology as a frontier area of knowledge per se, it focused on utilizing it as an enabling tool for assimilating and processing all other spheres of knowledge. It recommended the launching of an ‘Operation Knowledge’ aimed at universalizing computer literacy and spreading the use of computers and IT in education. In 1999, the Union Ministry of Information Technology was created. by 2000, a 12-point minimum agenda for e-Governance was identified by Government of India for implementation in all the Union Government Ministries/Departments.