Decision trees association rules and neural network
 


A tree-shaped structure that represents a set of decisions. These decisions generate rules for the classification of a dataset. See CART and CHAID.

Decision trees: Tree-shaped structures that represent sets of decisions. These decisions generate rules for the classification of a dataset. Specific decision tree methods include Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID).


Association rule learning is a popular and well researched method for discovering interesting relations between variables in large databases. Piatetsky-Shapiro describes analyzing and presenting strong rules discovered in databases using different measures of interestingness. Based on the concept of strong rules, Rakesh Agrawal et al. introduced association rules for discovering regularities between products in large-scale transaction data recorded by point-of-sale (POS) systems in supermarkets. For example, the rule \{\mathrm{onions, potatoes}\} \Rightarrow \{\mathrm{burger}\} found in the sales data of a supermarket would indicate that if a customer buys onions and potatoes together, he or she is likely to also buy hamburger meat. Such information can be used as the basis for decisions about marketing activities such as, e.g., promotional pricing or product placements. In addition to the above example from market basket analysis association rules are employed today in many application areas including Web usage mining, intrusion detection and bioinformatics. As opposed to sequence mining, association rule learning typically does not consider the order of items either within a transaction or across transactions.

 

Definition

Example database with 4 items and 5 transactions
transaction ID milk bread butter beer
1 1 1 0 0
2 0 0 1 0
3 0 0 0 1
4 1 1 1 0
5 0 1 0 0

Following the original definition by Agrawal et al. the problem of association rule mining is defined as: Let I=\{i_1, i_2,\ldots,i_n\} be a set of n binary attributes called items. Let D = \{t_1, t_2, \ldots, t_m\} be a set of transactions called the database. Each transaction in D has a unique transaction ID and contains a subset of the items in I. A rule is defined as an implication of the form X \Rightarrow Y where X, Y \subseteq I and X \cap Y = \emptyset. The sets of items (for short itemsets) X and Y are called antecedent (left-hand-side or LHS) and consequent (right-hand-side or RHS) of the rule respectively.

To illustrate the concepts, we use a small example from the supermarket domain. The set of items is I= \{\mathrm{milk, bread, butter, beer}\} and a small database containing the items (1 codes presence and 0 absence of an item in a transaction) is shown in the table to the right. An example rule for the supermarket could be \{\mathrm{butter, bread}\} \Rightarrow \{\mathrm{milk}\} meaning that if butter and bread are bought, customers also buy milk.

Note: this example is extremely small. In practical applications, a rule needs a support of several hundred transactions before it can be considered statistically significant, and datasets often contain thousands or millions of transactions.


An Artificial Neural Network, often just called a neural network, is a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks. A neural network consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons, and it processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. In most cases a neural network is an adaptive system that changes its structure during a learning phase. Neural networks are used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data.

The inspiration for neural networks came from examination of central nervous systems. In an artificial neural network, simple artificial nodes, called "neurons", "neurodes", "processing elements" or "units", are connected together to form a network which mimics a biological neural network.

There is no single formal definition of what an artificial neural network is. Generally, it involves a network of simple processing elements that exhibit complex global behavior determined by the connections between the processing elements and element parameters. Artificial neural networks are used with algorithms designed to alter the strength of the connections in the network to produce a desired signal flow.

Neural networks are also similar to biological neural networks in that functions are performed collectively and in parallel by the units, rather than there being a clear delineation of subtasks to which various units are assigned. The term "neural network" usually refers to models employed in statistics, cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. Neural network models which emulate the central nervous system are part of theoretical neuroscience and computational neuroscience.

In modern software implementations of artificial neural networks, the approach inspired by biology has been largely abandoned for a more practical approach based on statistics and signal processing. In some of these systems, neural networks or parts of neural networks (such as artificial neurons) are used as components in larger systems that combine both adaptive and non-adaptive elements. While the more general approach of such adaptive systems is more suitable for real-world problem solving, it has far less to do with the traditional artificial intelligence connectionist models. What they do have in common, however, is the principle of non-linear, distributed, parallel and local processing and adaptation. Historically, the use of neural networks models marked a paradigm shift in the late eighties from high-level (symbolic) artificial intelligence, characterized by expert systems with knowledge embodied in if-then rules, to low-level (sub-symbolic) machine learning, characterized by knowledge embodied in the parameters of a dynamical system.


Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of assigning a set of objects into groups (called clusters) so that the objects in the same cluster are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other clusters.

Clustering is a main task of explorative data mining, and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics.

Cluster analysis itself is not one specific algorithm, but the general task to be solved. It can be achieved by various algorithms that differ significantly in their notion of what constitutes a cluster and how to efficiently find them. Popular notions of clusters include groups with low distances among the cluster members, dense areas of the data space, intervals or particular statistical distributions. Clustering can therefore be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem. The appropriate clustering algorithm and parameter settings (including values such as the distance function to use, a density threshold or the number of expected clusters) depend on the individual data set and intended use of the results. Cluster analysis as such is not an automatic task, but an iterative process of knowledge discovery or interactive multi-objective optimization that involves trial and failure. It will often be necessary to modify preprocessing and parameters until the result achieves the desired properties.

Besides the term clustering, there are a number of terms with similar meanings, including automatic classification, numerical taxonomy, botryology (from Greek βότρυς "grape") and typological analysis. The subtle differences are often in the usage of the results: while in data mining, the resulting groups are the matter of interest, in automatic classification primarily their discriminative power is of interest. This often leads to misunderstandings between researchers coming from the fields of data mining and machine learning, since they use the same terms and often the same algorithms, but have different goals.