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Multiplexing and Demultiplexing using port numbers
Transport Layer protocols (TCP and UDP) are responsible for supporting multiple network applications at the same instance and these applications can send and receive network data simultaneously. Transport Layer Protocols are capable of doing this by making use of application level addressing, known as port numbers. The data from different applications operating on a network device are multiplexed at the sending device using port numbers and demultiplexed at the receiving device, again using port numbers.
TCP UDP Port Numbers
The two 16 bit fields in the TCP Header, Source port and Destination port identifies the port number which the application is listening at the sending device and receiving device. Since port number is a 16 bit number, the maximum possible value is 65535 ((2^16)-1).
The port numbers are divided into three ranges.
TCP Port Service Multiplexer (TCPMUX)
Remote Job Entry (RJE)
Message Send Protocol (MSP)
FTP - Data
FTP - Control
SSH Remote Login Protocol
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Host Name Server (Nameserv)
Login Host Protocol (Login)
Domain Name System (DNS)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
SNA Gateway Access Server
Simple File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)
NetBIOS Name Service
NetBIOS Datagram Service
Interim Mail Access Protocol (IMAP)
NetBIOS Session Service
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Gateway Access Control Protocol (GACP)
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Directory Location Service (DLS)
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Novell Netware over IP
Simple Network Paging Protocol (SNPP)