Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.
Amazon EC2’s simple web service interface allows you to obtain and configure capacity with minimal friction. It provides you with complete control of your computing resources and lets you run on Amazon’s proven computing environment. Amazon EC2 reduces the time required to obtain and boot new server instances to minutes, allowing you to quickly scale capacity, both up and down, as your computing requirements change. Amazon EC2 changes the economics of computing by allowing you to pay only for capacity that you actually use. Amazon EC2 provides developers the tools to build failure resilient applications and isolate themselves from common failure scenarios.
Amazon EC2 Functionality
Amazon EC2 presents a true virtual computing environment, allowing you to use web service interfaces to launch instances with a variety of operating systems, load them with your custom application environment, manage your network’s access permissions, and run your image using as many or few systems as you desire.
To use Amazon EC2, you simply:
- Select a pre-configured, templated Amazon Machine Image (AMI) to get up and running immediately. Or create an AMI containing your applications, libraries, data, and associated configuration settings.
- Configure security and network access on your Amazon EC2 instance.
- Choose which instance type(s) you want, then start, terminate, and monitor as many instances of your AMI as needed, using the web service APIs or the variety of management tools provided.
- Determine whether you want to run in multiple locations, utilize static IP endpoints, or attach persistent block storage to your instances.
- Pay only for the resources that you actually consume, like instance-hours or data transfer.
Elastic – Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously. Of course, because this is all controlled with web service APIs, your application can automatically scale itself up and down depending on its needs.
Completely Controlled – You have complete control of your instances. You have root access to each one, and you can interact with them as you would any machine. You can stop your instance while retaining the data on your boot partition and then subsequently restart the same instance using web service APIs. Instances can be rebooted remotely using web service APIs. You also have access to console output of your instances.
Flexible – You have the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software packages. Amazon EC2 allows you to select a configuration of memory, CPU, instance storage, and the boot partition size that is optimal for your choice of operating system and application. For example, your choice of operating systems includes numerous Linux distributions, and Microsoft Windows Server.
Designed for use with other Amazon Web Services – Amazon EC2 works in conjunction with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS), Amazon SimpleDB and Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) to provide a complete solution for computing, query processing and storage across a wide range of applications.
Reliable – Amazon EC2 offers a highly reliable environment where replacement instances can be rapidly and predictably commissioned. The service runs within Amazon’s proven network infrastructure and datacenters. The Amazon EC2 Service Level Agreement commitment is 99.95% availability for each Amazon EC2 Region.Secure – Amazon EC2 provides numerous mechanisms for securing your compute resources.
- Amazon EC2 includes web service interfaces to configure firewall settings that control network access to and between groups of instances.
- When launching Amazon EC2 resources within Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC), you can isolate your compute instances by specifying the IP range you wish to use, and connect to your existing IT infrastructure using industry-standard encrypted IPsec VPN. You can also choose to launch Dedicated Instances into your VPC. Dedicated Instances are Amazon EC2 Instances that run on hardware dedicated to a single customer for additional isolation.
- For more information on Amazon EC2 security refer to our Amazon Web Services: Overview of Security Process document.
- On-Demand Instances – On-Demand Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitments. This frees you from the costs and complexities of planning, purchasing, and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs. On-Demand Instances also remove the need to buy “safety net” capacity to handle periodic traffic spikes.
- Reserved Instances – Reserved Instances give you the option to make a low, one-time payment for each instance you want to reserve and in turn receive a significant discount on the hourly charge for that instance. There are three Reserved Instance types (Light, Medium, and Heavy Utilization Reserved Instances) that enable you to balance the amount you pay upfront with your effective hourly price. The Reserved Instance Marketplace is also available, which provides you with the opportunity to sell Reserved Instances if your needs change (i.e. want to move instances to a new AWS Region, change to a new instance type, or sell capacity for projects that end before your Reserved Instance term expires).
- Spot Instances – Spot Instances allow customers to bid on unused Amazon EC2 capacity and run those instances for as long as their bid exceeds the current Spot Price. The Spot Price changes periodically based on supply and demand, and customers whose bids meet or exceed it gain access to the available Spot Instances. If you have flexibility in when your applications can run, Spot Instances can significantly lower your Amazon EC2 costs.
Amazon EC2 provides a number of powerful features for building scalable, failure resilient, enterprise class applications, including:
- Amazon Elastic Block Store – Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) offers persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances. Amazon EBS volumes are network-attached, and persist independently from the life of an instance. Amazon EBS volumes are highly available, highly reliable volumes that can be leveraged as an Amazon EC2 instance’s boot partition or attached to a running Amazon EC2 instance as a standard block device. When used as a boot partition, Amazon EC2 instances can be stopped and subsequently restarted, enabling you to only pay for the storage resources used while maintaining your instance’s state. Amazon EBS volumes offer greatly improved durability over local Amazon EC2 instance stores, as Amazon EBS volumes are automatically replicated on the backend (in a single Availability Zone). For those wanting even more durability, Amazon EBS provides the ability to create point-in-time consistent snapshots of your volumes that are then stored in Amazon S3, and automatically replicated across multiple Availability Zones. These snapshots can be used as the starting point for new Amazon EBS volumes, and can protect your data for long term durability. You can also easily share these snapshots with co-workers and other AWS developers. Amazon EBS provides two volume types: Standard volumes and Provisioned IOPS volumes. Standard volumes offer cost effective storage that is ideal for applications with moderate or bursty I/O requirements. Provisioned IOPS volumes are designed to deliver predictable, high performance for I/O intensive applications such as databases. See Amazon Elastic Block Store for more details.
- EBS-Optimized Instances – For a low, additional, hourly fee, customers can launch selected Amazon EC2 instances types as “EBS-Optimized” instances. EBS-Optimized instances enable Amazon EC2 instances to fully utilize the IOPS provisioned on an EBS volume. EBS-Optimized instances deliver dedicated throughput between Amazon EC2 and Amazon EBS, with options between 500 Mbps and 1000 Mbps depending on the instance type used. When attached to EBS-Optimized instances, Provisioned IOPS volumes are designed to deliver within 10% of their provisioned performance 99.9% of the time. See Amazon EC2 Instance Types to find out more about instance types that can be launched as EBS-Optimized instances.
- Multiple Locations – Amazon EC2 provides the ability to place instances in multiple locations. Amazon EC2 locations are composed of Regions and Availability Zones. Availability Zones are distinct locations that are engineered to be insulated from failures in other Availability Zones and provide inexpensive, low latency network connectivity to other Availability Zones in the same Region. By launching instances in separate Availability Zones, you can protect your applications from failure of a single location. Regions consist of one or more Availability Zones, are geographically dispersed, and will be in separate geographic areas or countries. The Amazon EC2 Service Level Agreement commitment is 99.95% availability for each Amazon EC2 Region. Amazon EC2 is currently available in eight regions: US East (Northern Virginia), US West (Oregon), US West (Northern California), EU (Ireland), Asia Pacific (Singapore), Asia Pacific (Tokyo), South America (Sao Paulo), and AWS GovCloud.
- Elastic IP Addresses – Elastic IP addresses are static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing. An Elastic IP address is associated with your account not a particular instance, and you control that address until you choose to explicitly release it. Unlike traditional static IP addresses, however, Elastic IP addresses allow you to mask instance or Availability Zone failures by programmatically remapping your public IP addresses to any instance in your account. Rather than waiting on a data technician to reconfigure or replace your host, or waiting for DNS to propagate to all of your customers, Amazon EC2 enables you to engineer around problems with your instance or software by quickly remapping your Elastic IP address to a replacement instance. In addition, you can optionally configure the reverse DNS record of any of your Elastic IP addresses by filling out this form.
- Amazon Virtual Private Cloud – Amazon VPC is a secure and seamless bridge between a company’s existing IT infrastructure and the AWS cloud. Amazon VPC enables enterprises to connect their existing infrastructure to a set of isolated AWS compute resources via a Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection, and to extend their existing management capabilities such as security services, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems to include their AWS resources. See Amazon Virtual Private Cloud for more details.
- Amazon CloudWatch – Amazon CloudWatch is a web service that provides monitoring for AWS cloud resources and applications, starting with Amazon EC2. It provides you with visibility into resource utilization, operational performance, and overall demand patterns—including metrics such as CPU utilization, disk reads and writes, and network traffic. You can get statistics, view graphs, and set alarms for your metric data. To use Amazon CloudWatch, simply select the Amazon EC2 instances that you’d like to monitor. You can also supply your own business or application metric data. Amazon CloudWatch will begin aggregating and storing monitoring data that can be accessed using web service APIs or Command Line Tools. See Amazon CloudWatch for more details.
- Auto Scaling – Auto Scaling allows you to automatically scale your Amazon EC2 capacity up or down according to conditions you define. With Auto Scaling, you can ensure that the number of Amazon EC2 instances you’re using scales up seamlessly during demand spikes to maintain performance, and scales down automatically during demand lulls to minimize costs. Auto Scaling is particularly well suited for applications that experience hourly, daily, or weekly variability in usage. Auto Scaling is enabled by Amazon CloudWatch and available at no additional charge beyond Amazon CloudWatch fees. See Auto Scaling for more details.
- Elastic Load Balancing – Elastic Load Balancing automatically distributes incoming application traffic across multiple Amazon EC2 instances. It enables you to achieve even greater fault tolerance in your applications, seamlessly providing the amount of load balancing capacity needed in response to incoming application traffic. Elastic Load Balancing detects unhealthy instances within a pool and automatically reroutes traffic to healthy instances until the unhealthy instances have been restored. You can enable Elastic Load Balancing within a single Availability Zone or across multiple zones for even more consistent application performance. Amazon CloudWatch can be used to capture a specific Elastic Load Balancer’s operational metrics, such as request count and request latency, at no additional cost beyond Elastic Load Balancing fees. See Elastic Load Balancing for more details.
- High Performance Computing (HPC) Clusters – Customers with complex computational workloads such as tightly coupled parallel processes, or with applications sensitive to network performance, can achieve the same high compute and network performance provided by custom-built infrastructure while benefiting from the elasticity, flexibility and cost advantages of Amazon EC2. Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU Instances have been specifically engineered to provide high-performance network capability and can be programmatically launched into clusters – allowing applications to get the low-latency network performance required for tightly coupled, node-to-node communication. Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU Instances also provide significantly increased throughput making them well suited for customer applications that need to perform network-intensive operations. Learn more about Cluster Compute and Cluster GPU Instances as well as other AWS services that can be used for HPC Applications.
- High I/O Instances – Customers requiring very high, low latency, random I/O access to their data can benefit from High I/O instances. High I/O instances are an Amazon EC2 instance type that can provide customers with random I/O rates over 100,000 IOPS. High I/O instances are backed by Solid State Disk (SSD) technology and are ideally suited for customers running very high performance NoSQL and relational databases. See Amazon EC2 Instance Types to find out more about High I/O instances.
- VM Import/Export – VM Import/Export enables you to easily import virtual machine images from your existing environment to Amazon EC2 instances and export them back at any time. By importing virtual machines as ready to use EC2 instances, you can leverage your existing investments in virtual machines that meet your IT security, configuration management, and compliance requirements. You can export your previously imported EC2 instances back to your on-premise environment at any time. This offering is available at no additional charge beyond standard usage charges for Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3. Learn more about VM Import/Export.
- AWS Marketplace – AWS Marketplace is an online store that helps you find, buy and quickly deploy software that runs on AWS. You can use AWS Marketplace’s 1-Click deployment to quickly launch pre-configured software and be charged for what you use, by the hour or month. AWS handles billing and payments, and software charges appear on your AWS bill. Learn more about AWS Marketplace.
First generation (M1) Standard instances provide customers with a balanced set of resources and a low cost platform that is well suited for a wide variety of applications.
- M1 Small Instance (Default) 1.7 GiB of memory, 1 EC2 Compute Unit (1 virtual core with 1 EC2 Compute Unit), 160 GB of local instance storage, 32-bit or 64-bit platform
- M1 Medium Instance 3.75 GiB of memory, 2 EC2 Compute Units (1 virtual core with 2 EC2 Compute Units each), 410 GB of local instance storage, 32-bit or 64-bit platform
- M1 Large Instance 7.5 GiB of memory, 4 EC2 Compute Units (2 virtual cores with 2 EC2 Compute Units each), 850 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform
- M1 Extra Large Instance 15 GiB of memory, 8 EC2 Compute Units (4 virtual cores with 2 EC2 Compute Units each), 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform
Second generation (M3) Standard instances provide customers with a balanced set of resources and a higher level of processing performance compared to First Generation Standard instances. Instances in this family are ideal for applications that require higher absolute CPU and memory performance. Examples of applications that will benefit from the performance of Second Generation Standard instances include encoding, high traffic content management systems, and memcached.
- M3 Extra Large Instance 15 GiB of memory, 13 EC2 Compute Units (4 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), EBS storage only, 64-bit platform
- M3 Double Extra Large Instance 30 GiB of memory, 26 EC2 Compute Units (8 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), EBS storage only, 64-bit platform
Micro instances (t1.micro) provide a small amount of consistent CPU resources and allow you to increase CPU capacity in short bursts when additional cycles are available. They are well suited for lower throughput applications and web sites that require additional compute cycles periodically. You can learn more about how you can use Micro instances and appropriate applications in the Amazon EC2 documentation.
- Micro Instance 613 MiB of memory, up to 2 ECUs (for short periodic bursts), EBS storage only, 32-bit or 64-bit platform
Instances of this family offer large memory sizes for high throughput applications, including database and memory caching applications.
- High-Memory Extra Large Instance 17.1 GiB memory, 6.5 ECU (2 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), 420 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform
- High-Memory Double Extra Large Instance 34.2 GiB of memory, 13 EC2 Compute Units (4 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), 850 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform
- High-Memory Quadruple Extra Large Instance 68.4 GiB of memory, 26 EC2 Compute Units (8 virtual cores with 3.25 EC2 Compute Units each), 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform
Instances of this family have proportionally more CPU resources than memory (RAM) and are well suited for compute-intensive applications.
- High-CPU Medium Instance 1.7 GiB of memory, 5 EC2 Compute Units (2 virtual cores with 2.5 EC2 Compute Units each), 350 GB of local instance storage, 32-bit or 64-bit platform
- High-CPU Extra Large Instance 7 GiB of memory, 20 EC2 Compute Units (8 virtual cores with 2.5 EC2 Compute Units each), 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform
Cluster Compute Instances
Instances of this family provide proportionally high CPU resources with increased network performance and are well suited for High Performance Compute (HPC) applications and other demanding network-bound applications. You can learn more about Cluster instance concepts by reading the Amazon EC2 documentation. For more information about specific use cases and cluster management options for HPC, please visit the HPC solutions page.
- Cluster Compute Quadruple Extra Large 23 GiB memory, 33.5 EC2 Compute Units, 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform, 10 Gigabit Ethernet
- Cluster Compute Eight Extra Large 60.5 GiB memory, 88 EC2 Compute Units, 3370 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform, 10 Gigabit Ethernet
Cluster GPU Instances
Instances of this family provide general-purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) with proportionally high CPU and increased network performance for applications benefitting from highly parallelized processing, including HPC, rendering and media processing applications. While Cluster Compute Instances provide the ability to create clusters of instances connected by a low latency, high throughput network, Cluster GPU Instances provide an additional option for applications that can benefit from the efficiency gains of the parallel computing power of GPUs over what can be achieved with traditional processors. Learn more about use of this instance type for HPC applications.
- Cluster GPU Quadruple Extra Large 22 GiB memory, 33.5 EC2 Compute Units, 2 x NVIDIA Tesla “Fermi” M2050 GPUs, 1690 GB of local instance storage, 64-bit platform, 10 Gigabit Ethernet
High I/O Instances
Instances of this family provide very high disk I/O performance and are ideally suited for many high performance database workloads. High I/O instances provide SSD-based local instance storage, and also provide high levels of CPU, memory and network performance.
- High I/O Quadruple Extra Large 60.5 GiB memory, 35 EC2 Compute Units, 2 * 1024 GB of SSD-based local instance storage, 64-bit platform, 10 Gigabit Ethernet
EC2 Compute Unit (ECU) – One EC2 Compute Unit (ECU) provides the equivalent CPU capacity of a 1.0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron or 2007 Xeon processor.
Operating Systems and Software
Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) are preconfigured with an ever-growing list of operating systems. We work with our partners and community to provide you with the most choice possible. You are also empowered to use our bundling tools to upload your own operating systems. The operating systems currently available to use with your Amazon EC2 instances include:
|Red Hat Enterprise Linux||Windows Server||Oracle Enterprise Linux|
|SUSE Linux Enterprise||Amazon Linux AMI||Ubuntu|
Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) is a web service that makes it easy to set up, operate, and scale a relational database in the cloud. It provides cost-efficient and resizable capacity while managing time-consuming database administration tasks, freeing you up to focus on your applications and business.
Amazon RDS gives you access to the capabilities of a familiar MySQL, Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server database engine. This means that the code, applications, and tools you already use today with your existing databases can be used with Amazon RDS. Amazon RDS automatically patches the database software and backs up your database, storing the backups for a user-defined retention period and enabling point-in-time recovery. You benefit from the flexibility of being able to scale the compute resources or storage capacity associated with your Database Instance (DB Instance) via a single API call.
Amazon RDS DB Instances can be provisioned with either standard storage or Provisioned IOPS storage. Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS is a storage option designed to deliver fast, predictable, and consistent I/O performance, and is optimized for I/O-intensive, transactional (OLTP) database workloads.
In addition, Amazon RDS makes it easy to use replication to enhance availability and reliability for production workloads. Using the Multi-AZ deployment option you can run mission critical workloads with high availability and built-in automated fail-over from your primary database to a synchronously replicated secondary database in case of a failure. Amazon RDS for MySQL also enables you to scale out beyond the capacity of a single database deployment for read-heavy database workloads. As with all Amazon Web Services, there are no up-front investments required, and you pay only for the resources you use.
Amazon RDS Functionality
Amazon RDS is designed for developers or businesses who require the full features and capabilities of a relational database, or who wish to migrate existing applications and tools that utilize a relational database. It gives you access to the capabilities of a MySQL, Oracle or SQL Server database engines running on your own Amazon RDS database instance.
To use Amazon RDS, you simply:
- Use the AWS Management Console or Amazon RDS APIs to launch a Database Instance (DB Instance), selecting the DB Engine (MySQL, Oracle or SQL Server), License Type, DB Instance class and storage capacity that best meets your needs.
- Connect to your DB Instance using your favorite database tool or programming language. Since you have direct access to a native MySQL, Oracle or SQL Server database engine, most tools designed for these engines should work unmodified with Amazon RDS.
- Monitor the compute and storage resource utilization of your DB Instance, for no additional charge, via Amazon CloudWatch metrics available using the AWS Management Console “DB Instances” tab or Amazon CloudWatch APIs. If at any point you need additional capacity, you can scale the compute and storage resources associated with your DB Instance with a few clicks of the console or a simple API call.
- Pay only for the resources you actually consume, based on your DB Instance hours consumed, database storage, backup storage, and data transfer.
Simple to Deploy – Amazon RDS makes it easy to go from project conception to deployment. Use the AWS Management Console or simple API calls to access the capabilities of a production-ready relational database in minutes without worrying about infrastructure provisioning or installing and maintaining database software.
Managed – Amazon RDS handles time-consuming database management tasks, such as backups, patch management, and replication, allowing you to pursue higher value application development or database refinements.
Compatible – With Amazon RDS, you get native access to a relational database. This facilitates compatibility with your existing tools and applications. In addition, Amazon RDS gives you optional control over which supported MySQL DB Engine Version or Oracle DB Engine Version powers your DB Instance via DB Engine Version Management.
Fast, Predictable Performance – Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS is a high performance storage option designed to deliver fast, predictable, and consistent performance for I/O intensive transactional database workloads. When creating a new DB Instance using the Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS storage, you can specify the IOPS your instance needs from 1,000 IOPS to 10,000 IOPS and Amazon RDS provisions that IOPS rate for the lifetime of the instance.
Scalable – You can scale the compute and storage resources available to your database to meet your application needs using the Amazon RDS API or the AWS Management Console. If you are using Amazon RDS Provisioned IOPS storage with MySQL and Oracle database engines, you can scale the throughput of your database Instance by specifying the IOPS rate from 1,000 to 10,000 and corresponding storage from 100 GB to 1TB. In addition, for the MySQL database engine, you can also associate one or more Read Replicas with your database instance deployment, enabling you to scale beyond the capacity of a single database instance for read-heavy workloads. For the SQL Server database engine, you can provision from 1,000 IOPS to 7,000 IOPS with corresponding storage from 100 GB to 1TB of storage.
Reliable – Amazon RDS has multiple features that enhance reliability for critical production databases, including automated backups, DB snapshots, automatic host replacement, and Multi-AZ deployments for both MySQL and Oracle database engines. Amazon RDS runs on the same highly reliable infrastructure used by other Amazon Web Services.
Designed for use with other Amazon Web Services – Amazon RDS is tightly integrated with other Amazon Web Services. For example, an application running in Amazon EC2 will experience low-latency database access to an Amazon RDS DB Instance in the same region.
Secure – Amazon RDS provides a number of mechanisms to secure your DB Instances.
- Amazon RDS includes web service interfaces to configure firewall settings that control network access to your database.
- Amazon RDS allows you to run your DB Instances in Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). Amazon VPC enables you to isolate your DB Instances by specifying the IP range you wish to use, and connect to your existing IT infrastructure through industry-standard encrypted IPsec VPN. Amazon RDS Micro Instances are not available in a VPC at this time. To learn more about Amazon RDS in VPC, refer to the Amazon RDS User Guide.
Inexpensive – You pay very low rates and only for the resources you actually consume. In addition, you benefit from the option of On-Demand pricing with no up-front or long-term commitments, or even lower hourly rates via our reserved pricing option.
- On-Demand DB Instances – On-Demand DB Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitments. This frees you from the costs and complexities of planning, purchasing, and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs.
- Reserved DB Instances – Reserved DB Instances give you the option to make a low, one-time payment for each DB Instance you want to reserve and in turn receive a significant discount on the hourly usage charge for that DB Instance. Depending on your usage, you can choose between three Reserved DB Instance types (Light, Medium, and Heavy Utilization) and receive anywhere between 30% and 55% of discount over On-Demand prices. To learn more, please visit our Reserved DB Instances page.
The features provided by Amazon RDS depend on the DB Engine you select. Visit the Amazon RDS for MySQL page for supported features for the MySQL engine, the Amazon RDS for Oracle Database page for supported features of the Oracle database engine or the Amazon RDS for SQL Server pagefor supported features for the SQL Server engine.
- Pre-configured Parameters – Amazon RDS DB Instances are pre-configured with a sensible set of parameters and settings appropriate for the DB Instance class you have selected. You can simply launch a MySQL, Oracle or SQL Server DB Instance and connect your application within minutes without additional configuration. If you desire additional control, you can achieve it via DB Parameter Groups
- Monitoring and Metrics – Amazon RDS provides Amazon CloudWatch metrics for your DB Instance deployments at no additional charge. You can use the AWS Management Console to view key operational metrics for your DB Instance deployments, including compute/memory/storage capacity utilization, I/O activity, and DB Instance connections.
- Automatic Software Patching – Amazon RDS will make sure that the relational database software powering your deployment stays up-to-date with the latest patches. You can exert optional control over when and if your DB Instance is patched via DB Engine Version Management.
- Automated Backups – Turned on by default, the automated backup feature of Amazon RDS enables point-in-time recovery for your DB Instance. Amazon RDS will backup your database and transaction logs and store both for a user-specified retention period. This allows you to restore your DB Instance to any second during your retention period, up to the last five minutes. Your automatic backup retention period can be configured to up to thirty five days.
- DB Snapshots – DB Snapshots are user-initiated backups of your DB Instance. These full database backups will be stored by Amazon RDS until you explicitly delete them. You can create a new DB Instance from a DB Snapshot whenever you desire.
Provisioned IOPS – Using the Amazon RDS APIs or with a few clicks on the AWS Management Console, you can provision the IOPS for your database instance and scale it easily. This functionality is available to you in two stages. Starting immediately, when you create new DB Instances using the AWS Management Console or the Amazon RDS APIs, you can provision from 1,000 IOPS to 10,000 IOPS with corresponding storage from 100GB to 1TB for MySQL and Oracle engines. You can start small and scale up in increments of 1,000 IOPS and 100GB of storage. If you are using SQL Server then the maximum IOPS you can provision is 7,000 IOPS.
In the near future, we plan to provide you with an automated way to migrate existing DB Instances to Provisioned IOPS storage for MySQL and Oracle database engines. If you want to migrate an existing RDS database instance to Provisioned IOPS storage immediately, you can export the data from your DB Instance and import into a new DB Instance equipped with Provisioned IOPS storage.
- Push-Button Scaling – Using the Amazon RDS APIs or with a few clicks on the AWS Management Console, you can scale the compute and memory resources powering your deployment up or down. Scale compute operations typically complete within a handful of minutes. For MySQL and Oracle database engines, as your storage requirements grow, you can also provision additional storage on-the-fly with zero downtime. If you are using RDS Provisioned IOPS with the MySQL and Oracle database engines, you can also scale the throughput of your DB Instance by specifying the IOPS rate from 1,000 IOPS to 10,000 IOPS and corresponding storage from 100GB and 1TB in 1,000 IOPS and 100GB increments.
- Automatic Host Replacement – Amazon RDS will automatically replace the compute instance powering your deployment in the event of a hardware failure.
- Replication – Amazon RDS provides two distinct but complementary replication features: Multi-AZ deployments and Read Replicas that can be used in conjunction to gain enhanced database availability, protect your latest database updates against unplanned outages, and scale beyond the capacity constraints of a single DB Instance for read-heavy database workloads. Multi-AZ deployments are available for the MySQL and Oracle database engines.Read Replicas are currently supported for the MySQL database engine.
- Isolation and Security– Using Amazon VPC, you can isolate your DB Instances in your own virtual network, and connect to your existing IT infrastructure using industry-standard encrypted IPsec VPN. The VPC functionality is supported by all RDS DB Engines. To learn more about Amazon RDS in VPC, refer to the Amazon RDS User Guide. In addition, using Amazon RDS, you can configure firewall settings and control network access to your DB Instances.
DB Instance Classes
Amazon RDS currently supports the following DB Instance Classes:
- Micro DB Instance: 630 MB memory, Up to 2 ECU (for short periodic bursts), 64-bit platform, Low I/O Capacity
- Small DB Instance: 1.7 GB memory, 1 ECU (1 virtual core with 1 ECU), 64-bit platform, Moderate I/O Capacity
- Large DB Instance: 7.5 GB memory, 4 ECUs (2 virtual cores with 2 ECUs each), 64-bit platform, High I/O Capacity
- Extra Large DB Instance: 15 GB of memory, 8 ECUs (4 virtual cores with 2 ECUs each), 64-bit platform, High I/O Capacity (MySQL DB Engine Only)
- High-Memory Extra Large Instance 17.1 GB memory, 6.5 ECU (2 virtual cores with 3.25 ECUs each), 64-bit platform, High I/O Capacity
- High-Memory Double Extra Large DB Instance: 34 GB of memory, 13 ECUs (4 virtual cores with 3,25 ECUs each), 64-bit platform, High I/O Capacity
- High-Memory Quadruple Extra Large DB Instance: 68 GB of memory, 26 ECUs (8 virtual cores with 3.25 ECUs each), 64-bit platform, High I/O Capacity
For each DB Instance class, RDS provides you with the ability to select from 5GB to 1TB of associated storage capacity. One ECU provides the equivalent CPU capacity of a 1.0-1.2 GHz 2007 Opteron or 2007 Xeon processor.