On The Job Training

On The Job Training

On The Job Training– OJT training, sometimes called direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training (Observational learning is probably the earliest – see Albert Bandura). It is one-on-one training located at the job site, where someone who knows how to do a task shows another how to perform it. In antiquity, the kind of work that people did was mainly unskilled or semiskilled work that did not require specialized knowledge. Parents or other community members, who knew how to do a job necessary for survival, passed their knowledge on to the children through direct instruction.

On-the-job training is still widely in use today. In fact, it is probably the most popular method of training because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. It may not be the most effective or the most efficient method at times, but it is the easiest to arrange and manage. Because the training takes place on the job, it is realistic and no transfer of learning is required. It is often inexpensive because no special equipment is needed other than what is normally used on the job. The other side is that OJT takes the trainer and materials out of production for the duration of the training time. In addition, due to safety or other production factors, it is prohibitive in some environments.

There are several good models for developing training however, suggestions relating to the three essential and critical areas of any model

  • Designing and developing materials used in the program
  • Implementing the program (using the materials to train new employees)
  • Maintaining the program so that training materials are always correct and reflect the latest changes in production processes. This also includes upgrading the training for “already trained” employees when production process changes are implemented.

Types of courses, or course delivery systems, most often associated with job-task training include:

  • Lecture and lecture/lab
  • Self-paced instruction, including print-based self-study, web based training (WBT), and computer based training (CBT)
  • Structured on-job-training (OJT).

General Tips

Tip 1: Don’t be too quick to select course delivery mode.

Tip 2: Document the Audience Analysis and make it a part of the training design documentation. Tip 3: Make sure the Task Analysis is complete and accurate.

Tip 4: Be specific when defining prerequisite skills and knowledge.

Tip 5: Document course maintenance plans early in the design process.

Tip 6: Make decisions, in the design phase, concerning document control.

Tip 7: Plan how to track training and certification.

Tip 8: Plan how to handle training and/or certification of existing skilled workers.

Tip 9: Continually monitor training quality.

Tips for Lecture and Self-Paced Courses

Tip 10: Explain the relevance of each course segment, at the beginning of the segment.

Tip 11: Always state (or write) objectives in the terms that the learner will be measured in the training environment.

Tip 12: Disclose the respective objective(s) at the beginning segments (preferably immediately following the explanation of relevance).

Tip 13: Maintain congruence between objectives and job-tasks.

Tip 14: Maintain congruence among content, learner interactions, and objectives

Tip 15: Restrict content to that required to meet objectives and perform job-tasks.

Tip 16: Don’t mix and match terms

Tip 17: Integrate Job Aids and other support tools into the training.

Tips for CBT

Tip18: Strive for stand-alone content, screen by screen.

Tip 19: Design course navigation so that it is as intuitive as you can make it.

Tip 20: Where possible, avoid automatically timed screen changes, unless those changes are timed to follow an audio script.

Tip 21: Provide clues so that he learner will have some idea of what will happen when they do something.

Tip 22: Select screen and text colors for a reason, and use those colors consistently throughout the course.

Tip 23: Display the screen’s relative location in the learning event

Tip 24: Provide “resume” function

Tip 25: Don’t let screen design compete with learning

Tip 26: Be cautious of humor

Tip 27: Provide easy access to a glossary throughout the learning event where applicable

Tip 28: Consider DazzlerMax as an authoring system. End of Tips for CBT

Tips – Structured OJT

Tip 29: Consider using structured OJT as the keystone of any job-task-training program,

Tip 30: Document structured OJT implementation plans in the design phase.

Tip 31: Decide if structured OJT trainers are going to be expert production workers first and trainers second or if, conversely, they should betrainers first and expert production workers second.

Tip 32: Develop simple, but complete trainee and trainer guides.

Tip 33: Develop task sign-off sheets to record achievement for each trainee.

Tip 34: Identify the tasks and performance standards for the roll of OJT trainer for your organization.

Tip 35: Consider requiring workers selected as trainers to demonstrate that they can perform the tasks associated with the roll of trainer and be company-certified as trainers.

Tip 36: Consider requiring your trainers to be company-certified in the job they are teaching.

Tip 37: Consider assigning three areas of responsibility to structured OJT trainers.

Tip 38: Plan how to compensate workers who are given additional responsibilities of training and evaluation.

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