Job Analysis is a primary tool to collect job-related data. The process results in collecting and recording two data sets including job description and job specification. Any job vacancy can not be filled until and unless HR manager has these two sets of data. It is necessary to define them accurately in order to fit the right person at the right place and at the right time. This helps both employer and employee understand what exactly needs to be delivered and how.
Both job description and job specification are essential parts of job analysis information. Writing them clearly and accurately helps organization and workers cope with many challenges while onboard.
Though preparing job description and job specification are not legal requirements yet play a vital role in getting the desired outcome. These data sets help in determining the necessity, worth and scope of a specific job.
Also known as employee specifications, a job specification is a written statement of educational qualifications, specific qualities, level of experience, physical, emotional, technical and communication skills required to perform a job, responsibilities involved in a job and other unusual sensory demands. It also includes general health, mental health, intelligence, aptitude, memory, judgment, leadership skills, emotional ability, adaptability, flexibility, values and ethics, manners and creativity, etc.
Components of a Job Specification
Experience: Number of years of experience in the job you are seeking to fill. Number of years of work experience required for the selected candidate. Note whether the position requires progressively more complex and responsible experience, and supervisory or managerial experience.
Education: State what degrees, training, or certifications are required for the position.
Required Skills, Knowledge and Characteristics: State the skills, knowledge, and personal characteristics of individuals who have successfully performed this job. Or, use the job analysis data to determine the attributes you need from your “ideal” candidate. Yourrecruiting planning meeting or email participants can also help determine these requirements for the job specification.
High Level Overview of Job Requirements: In under ten bullet points, cite the key components and requirements of the job you are filling.
Information contained in Job Specification
Job Specification contains or consists of the following information :-
- Personal characteristics such as education, job experience, age, gender, extra curricular activities, etc.
- Physical characteristics such as height, weight, vision, hearing, fitness, health, etc.
- Mental characteristics such as general intelligence (IQ), memory, judgement, foresight, etc.
- Social and Psychological characteristics such as emotional ability, flexibility, manners, creativity, group behaviour, etc.