Software Quality Assurance

We have curated top Interview questions and answers that will prepare you for a job Software Quality Assurance.

Q.1 What is the interpretation of 80 - 20 rule/pareto analysis
80% of customers' complaints by volume are 20% of problems by categories.
Q.2 What is the primary objective of risk exposure analysis?
The primary objective of risk exposure analysis is estimating the impact of the risk on the project and the product.
Q.3 What is the purpose of software project planning as per CMMI?
Establish and maintain plans that define project activities.
Q.4 What are the reasons for software-related audit?
The reasons for software-related audit are : 1. Specific project milestone has been reached and an audit is initiated as planned or as required by the auditing organization’s charter. 2. Customers request an audit of a specific item, at a specific date. 3. Internal organization has requested the audit.
Q.5 What does ideal risk management minimizes ?
Ideal risk management minimizes spending and the negative effects of risks.
Q.6 How will you define responsibilities of a QA Analyst?
Then QA Analyst ensures that every possible measure has taken place for testing each and the feature of software solution both functionally and technically.

Some of the key responsibilities of QA Analyst are -
1. He should be able to execute and manage all the activities to meet the objectives of the test plan.
2. He should be able to choose the processes of high quality to develop the product.
3. He should be able to analyze the requirement and document procedures.
4. He should be able to document and re-verify all defects. Set the priority and severity of defects.
5. He should be able to create, document and maintain test cases.
Q.7 How do you define Test plan?
Test plan is a document that consists of scope, approach, resources, and outline of the testing project as well as the activities for tracking the progress of the project. The test plan is a record of processes which include -
1. Testing tasks
2. Testing environment
3. Design techniques
4. Entry and exit criteria
5. Any risks
Q.8 What is the priority of the testing tasks defined by the QA team in product development?
Testing tasks is performed as per the priority in the following ways -
1. A test plan is prepared consisting of the outline and scope of the testing project.
2. Test cases are prepared to cover all the major and minor functionalities with the full data required for testing.
3. Execution of the test cases as per the functionalities implemented with the coming builds of the testing project in the testing cycle.
4. Defect reporting with re-verification as well as tracking its progress. 5. Preparing the test execution report summary.
Q.9 What are the key challenges that are faced while performing Software Testing?
There are several challenges involved while performing Software Testing in it.
1. There is a lack of skilled tester who usually face the problem of subject awareness as well as lack of good knowledge of customer’s business.
2. Also time is considered as the factor, as usually testers focus mainly on task coverage rather than test coverage with quality testing when there is a huge list of task to be completed.
3. In order to decide which test case has to be executed first and with priority. This is usually achieved by the experience of work.
4. Requires a proper understanding of the requirements which can lead to all your testing efforts to zero, if the requirement is misunderstood.
5. Unavailability of best tools that are required to complete the testing with less time and more effectiveness.
6. Handling the relationship between testers and developers with good communication and analyzing skills.
Q.10 What do you understand by Use Case Testing?
Use case testing is a functional black box testing technique that captures the series of interactions which has occurred between ‘actors’ and ‘system’. Such that ‘Actors’ are the represented by the users and their interactions. Some of the characteristics of the use case testing are -
1.Organized Functional requirements of the project.
2. Records path or scenarios from start to finish.
3. Covers integration defects i.e. the defects that occurred as a result of interaction between different components.
4. Describes the main flows as well as the exceptional flow of the events.
5. Pre-conditions required for the use case to work should be specified earlier.
Q.11 What is Test Strategy?
Test Strategy is a set of guidelines or the testing approach usually carried out by the project manager to identify the test design and general testing approach. Such that it is found as a small section of test plan and is used by multiple projects. There are different test approaches that are followed, based on the factors like nature and domain of product, the risk of product failure, expertise in working with proposed tools, etc. Test Strategy approaches are further categorized as -
1. Proactive approach, where the test designs approach is started before the build is created. Therefore it helps in finding and fixing the bugs before the build.
2. Reactive approach, where the testing approach is started after the completion of test design and coding.
Q.12 What is the best time to start QA in a project?
With reference to the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the Testing phase is executed after the ‘Implementation and Coding’ phase is completed. But according to today’s scenario, in order to achieve best results, it is suggested to start the QA of the project or product at the starting of the project. This approach will lead to the major advantages like -
1. Early process planning to meet customer’s quality expectations.
2. Good and healthy communication between the teams.
3. Gives ample amount of time that is required for setting up of the testing environment.
4. Allows early review and approval of test plans.
Q.13 What is Data-Driven Testing?
Every automation tester that automation test scripts cover only the area of the application to be tested with a recorded sequence of user actions. In general, these actions do not produce any error as only that input data are taken under conditions which we have entered while recording.
Data-driven testing occurs when we want the application to work as expected for any type of input values. Such that for this purpose, data required for data-driven testing are not hardcoded but test scripts take their data from data sources like CSV files, ODBC sources, etc.
1. To summarize, data-driven testing performs the following actions in the loop:
2. To take input test data from the storage.
3. Data entered in the application to perform actions.
4. To verify the actual results with the expected ones.
5. To again repeat the same steps with new input test data.
Q.14 What is Traceability Matrix and is it needed for every project?
In any project, traceability matrix is the means of tracking the progress of the project with respect to the implementation of new functionalities, enhancement of existing functionalities, etc. The traceability matrix, is used to keep an eye on the project progress with each and every aspect maintained as per the date.
The Parameters of Requirement Traceability matrix include:

1. Every section of requirement document is a point to be covered in RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix).
2. Headline of each point is the headline of each section in the requirement specification.
3. Corresponding test case ids are mentioned which are written for that particular section.
4. BUG/New Feature ID is also mentioned in each section.
5. Tracking of the feature is also maintained in which the build of the project and its feature has been implemented.
6. The section is fully tested or is still under testing status.
Q.15 Why is automation testing preferred over manual testing?
I would say automation testing and manual testing have their own importance and existence in the world of testing. Some of the important features due to which automation testing is preferred over manual testing are -
1. Same test script can be used every time to run the test thus automation testing is considered as the most reliable and efficient one.
2. Preferred in case of regression testing and repeated execution.
3. Automation testing is considered to be a cost-effective one in the case of long-term execution and thus ensures a better quality of software.
4. Test scripts are reusable, fast and everyone can see the results.
5. Tools used for automation testing are more fast and reliable when compared to the manual approach.
Q.16 Why is performance testing considered important for any application?
Performance testing is used to determine the behavior and response of an application under various situations. This assists to gather information with reference to application stability, scalability, speed, etc.

Some of the reasons for performance testing are - :

1. Helps to determine the response time and performance of an application component under the workload.
2. Helps to calculate the response time of user’s activity.
3. Uses experienced programmers with extensive technical language.
4. Helps to determine the behavior of the application under load i.e. when the number of the user increases instantly.
Q.17 What are the roles and responsibilities of Quality Assurance engineer?
The roles and responsibilities of a software quality assurance engineer are -
1. Responsible to monitor the entire development process.
2. Responsible to track the outcomes of each phase of SDLC and adjust them to meet the expectation.
3. Responsible to read and understand the requirement documents.
4. Responsible to analyze test requirements, and design and execute tests.
5. Responsible to develop test cases and prioritize testing activities.
6. Responsible to record problems and issues in accordance with the project’s problem and issue management plans.
7. Responsible to work with the application team and/or client to resolve any issues that arise in the testing process.
8. Responsible to carry out regression testing every time when changes are made to the code to fix defects.
9. Responsible to interact with the clients to better understand the product requirements.
10. Responsible to participate in walkthroughs of testing procedures.
Q.18 What is the process of QA testing?
QA testing process is a step by step process that involves analyzing requirement documents, preparing test strategy, test plan and test cases, executing test cases when the build is ready. QA’s is responsible to perform different types of testing to make sure the software reaches or exceeds the expectation, in the execution process..
Q.19 What do you understand by quality audit?
Quality audit is defined as the process of systematic and independent examination of a software product or process to test compliance with specifications, standards, agreements and other relevant criteria.
Q.20 Have you written any Test Strategy?
In general, test strategy document are prepared by Test Managers or Project Managers. Now if you are applying for a Project Manger position and also you have experience in preparing Test Strategy document then you can say - "Yes I have written a test strategy before"
"Else you can say I understand what is a test strategy and its purpose but I have never got a chance to write Test Strategy document.:
Q.21 How do you decide when you have tested enough?
As a project manager or project lead, we might face a situation to call off the testing to release the product early on. In those cases, you have to decide whether the testers have tested the product enough or not. Some features involved in the real time projects to decide when to stop testing are - 1. If we have reached Testing deadlines or release deadlines 2. By reaching the decided pass percentage of test cases 3. If the risk in the project is under the acceptable limit 4. If all the high priority bugs and blockers are fixed 5. If we meet the acceptance criteria Still it depends on the risks for the system being tested.
Q.22 What are the key points to consider while writing a bug report.
Some of the key points that should be considered while writing a bug report are - 1. It reproduce the bug 2-3 times. 2. It uses some keywords related to your bug and search in the Defect Tracking Tool. 3. It checks in similar modules. 4. It reports the problem immediately. 5. It writes detailed steps to reproduce the bug. 6. It writes a good defect summary. We must mind the language in the process of writing the bug report. . 7. It is advisable to Illustrate the issue by using proper screenshots. 8i. It Proofread the bug report twice or thrice before posting it.
Q.23 What do you understand by bug leakage and bug release?
We define them as - Bug Leakage can be defined as a bug which is actually missed by the testing team while testing and the build was released to the Production. Therefore if now that bug was found by the end user or customer then we call it as Bug Leakage. Bug release: It is defined as releasing the software to the Production with some known bugs then we call it as Bug Release. These known bugs should be included in the release note. In other case, releasing the software to the testing team with some known bugs whose severity and priority is low.
Q.24 What do you understand by CRUD testing?
CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) is the term used for Black box testing. CRUD testing is also used for database testing. C – Create – Creating a new Transaction R – Read/Retrieve – Searching or viewing a transaction U – Update – Editing or modifying an existing transaction. D – Delete – Deleting a transaction from the database
Q.25 What is bug life cycle?
Bug life cycle is also referred as Defect life cycle in the Software Development process, the bug has a life cycle. Such that the bug must go through the life cycle to be closed. Bug life cycle depends upon the tools (QC, JIRA etc.,) used and the process followed in the organization
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