Software Quality Assurance

We have curated top Interview questions and answers that will prepare you for a job Software Quality Assurance.

Q.1 What is Software Quality Assurance (SQA)?
SQA is a systematic process that ensures software meets defined quality standards throughout its development life cycle.
Q.2 Why is SQA important in software development?
SQA helps deliver high-quality software, reduces defects, minimizes risks, and ensures customer satisfaction.
Q.3 What is the role of a Software Quality Assurance Engineer?
SQA engineers design, implement, and oversee quality processes, perform testing, and ensure adherence to quality standards.
Q.4 Explain the difference between quality control and quality assurance.
Quality control focuses on identifying and fixing defects, while quality assurance aims to prevent defects from occurring.
Q.5 What are the key components of a Software Quality Management System (QMS)?
Components include policies, procedures, standards, guidelines, and tools for managing quality.
Q.6 What is the PDCA cycle, and how does it relate to SQA?
PDCA stands for Plan-Do-Check-Act and is a cycle for continuous improvement in SQA by planning, executing, monitoring, and refining processes.
Q.7 How do you define quality requirements for a software project?
Quality requirements are defined through discussions with stakeholders, industry standards, and documented in the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP).
Q.8 What is the purpose of a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) in SQA?
A QAP outlines the quality objectives, processes, resources, and responsibilities for a software project.
Q.9 Explain the concept of software testing in SQA.
Software testing involves evaluating a software product to identify defects and ensure it meets specified requirements.
Q.10 What is the difference between verification and validation in software testing?
Verification ensures the software is built correctly (meets specifications), while validation checks if it meets the user's needs.
Q.11 What are the phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), and where does SQA fit in?
SDLC phases include requirements, design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance. SQA spans across all phases.
Q.12 How do you ensure software requirements are clear and complete?
Requirements are validated through reviews, discussions with stakeholders, and using techniques like Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM).
Q.13 Explain the concept of traceability in SQA.
Traceability ensures that each requirement is linked to design, test cases, and other artifacts, allowing for easy tracking and verification.
Q.14 What is the purpose of a Software Quality Assurance Audit?
Audits assess compliance with established processes, standards, and procedures to identify areas for improvement.
Q.15 How do you conduct a code review in SQA?
Code reviews involve examining source code to identify defects, adherence to coding standards, and maintainability.
Q.16 What is the difference between static testing and dynamic testing in SQA?
Static testing reviews documents, code, and designs without executing them, while dynamic testing involves executing the software to find defects.
Q.17 What is a test case, and how do you write one in SQA?
A test case is a document specifying inputs, expected results, and conditions for testing. It's written based on test requirements.
Q.18 Explain the purpose of a test plan in SQA.
A test plan outlines the scope, approach, resources, and schedule for testing activities in a project.
Q.19 How do you prioritize testing activities in SQA?
Prioritization is based on factors like risk, criticality of features, business impact, and project constraints.
Q.20 What is the role of a test environment in SQA?
A test environment provides the necessary hardware, software, and data for testing, ensuring it mimics the production environment.
Q.21 How do you perform regression testing in SQA?
Regression testing retests modified code to ensure new changes haven't introduced defects or affected existing functionality.
Q.22 Explain the concept of test automation in SQA.
Test automation involves using tools and scripts to automate repetitive and manual testing tasks, improving efficiency and coverage.
Q.23 What is a Test Case Management (TCM) tool, and why is it used in SQA?
TCM tools help manage test cases, test execution, and track test results, streamlining testing processes.
Q.24 How do you ensure software security in SQA?
Security testing, code reviews, and adherence to secure coding practices are essential for ensuring software security.
Q.25 What is the purpose of load testing in SQA?
Load testing assesses how a software system performs under expected and peak loads, helping identify performance bottlenecks.
Q.26 How do you perform usability testing in SQA?
Usability testing evaluates the user-friendliness of the software by observing users as they interact with it, collecting feedback.
Q.27 Explain the concept of acceptance testing in SQA.
Acceptance testing ensures that the software meets the user's requirements and is ready for deployment.
Q.28 What is the difference between functional and non-functional testing in SQA?
Functional testing verifies specific functions work as intended, while non-functional testing assesses performance, security, and other attributes.
Q.29 How do you manage defects or issues identified during testing in SQA?
Defects are logged, prioritized, and tracked using defect tracking tools, and they go through a resolution process.
Q.30 What is the role of a Test Closure Report in SQA?
A Test Closure Report summarizes the testing activities, results, and provides an overall assessment of the software's quality.
Q.31 How do you measure the effectiveness of SQA processes?
Effectiveness is measured using metrics such as defect density, test coverage, and adherence to project schedules.
Q.32 Explain the concept of Continuous Integration (CI) in SQA.
CI involves automatically integrating and testing code changes as they are committed, ensuring early defect detection.
Q.33 What is the purpose of a Defect Severity vs. Priority matrix in SQA?
The matrix helps prioritize defect resolution based on their severity and impact on the project.
Q.34 How do you conduct a root cause analysis for defects in SQA?
Root cause analysis investigates the underlying reasons for defects to prevent them from recurring.
Q.35 What is a Test Driven Development (TDD) approach in SQA?
TDD involves writing tests before implementing code to ensure that code meets the defined requirements and passes tests.
Q.36 Explain the concept of code coverage in SQA.
Code coverage measures the percentage of code that has been executed by tests, helping identify untested areas.
Q.37 How do you ensure SQA processes are compliant with industry standards?
Compliance is achieved by following standards such as ISO 9001 or industry-specific quality standards.
Q.38 What is the purpose of a Software Configuration Management (SCM) process in SQA?
SCM ensures the control and management of software artifacts and changes throughout the development life cycle.
Q.39 How do you handle change requests in SQA?
Change requests go through a formal change control process, including impact analysis and approval before implementation.
Q.40 Explain the concept of code review best practices in SQA.
Best practices include having clear objectives, involving multiple reviewers, using checklists, and providing constructive feedback.
Q.41 What is a Test Environment Management (TEM) strategy, and why is it important in SQA?
TEM strategies ensure efficient and controlled test environments for different testing phases, minimizing conflicts.
Q.42 How do you ensure software maintainability in SQA?
Maintainability is ensured through code reviews, documentation, adherence to coding standards, and version control.
Q.43 What is the purpose of a Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP) in SQA?
A DRP outlines procedures to recover data and systems in the event of a disaster, ensuring business continuity.
Q.44 How do you perform data migration testing in SQA?
Data migration testing verifies the accuracy and integrity of data transferred from one system to another during migration.
Q.45 What is the role of SQA in Agile software development?
SQA ensures that Agile teams adhere to quality standards, conduct testing, and continuously improve processes.
Q.46 How do you handle SQA in a DevOps environment?
SQA in DevOps involves integrating testing into the CI/CD pipeline and automating testing processes for rapid feedback.
Q.47 Explain the concept of risk-based testing in SQA.
Risk-based testing prioritizes testing efforts based on the likelihood and impact of potential defects.
Q.48 How do you ensure software reliability in SQA?
Reliability is ensured through rigorous testing, error handling, and monitoring in production environments.
Q.49 What is the purpose of a Test Execution Report in SQA?
A Test Execution Report summarizes the outcomes of test executions, highlighting pass/fail statuses and issues encountered.
Q.50 How do you ensure software scalability in SQA?
Scalability is assessed through performance testing and ensuring the software can handle increasing loads.
Q.51 Explain the concept of Continuous Testing in SQA.
Continuous Testing is the practice of automating and executing tests continuously throughout the software delivery pipeline.
Q.52 How do you manage test data in SQA?
Test data is managed by creating and maintaining datasets that cover various test scenarios and conditions.
Q.53 What is the role of a Test Estimation in SQA?
Test estimation determines the effort, resources, and schedule required for testing activities in a project.
Q.54 How do you ensure software compatibility in SQA?
Compatibility testing verifies that the software functions correctly on different browsers, devices, and platforms.
Q.55 Explain the concept of boundary value analysis in SQA.
Boundary value analysis tests the software with inputs at the boundaries of valid and invalid ranges to uncover defects.
Q.56 What is a Test Automation Framework, and why is it used in SQA?
A test automation framework provides a structure for test automation, promoting reusability and maintainability of test scripts.
Q.57 How do you ensure software accuracy in SQA?
Accuracy is ensured by validating that the software produces accurate results according to specified requirements.
Q.58 Explain the concept of alpha and beta testing in SQA.
Alpha testing is internal testing by the development team, while beta testing involves external users testing the software before release.
Q.59 What is the purpose of a Test Readiness Review (TRR) in SQA?
A TRR assesses the readiness of the software and test environment before test execution begins.
Q.60 How do you ensure software compliance with accessibility standards in SQA?
Accessibility testing verifies that software can be used by individuals with disabilities, conforming to accessibility guidelines.
Q.61 Explain the concept of pairwise testing in SQA.
Pairwise testing selects combinations of input variables to maximize test coverage while minimizing the number of test cases.
Q.62 What is a Test Incident Report (TIR), and how is it used in SQA?
A TIR documents defects discovered during testing, including details, steps to reproduce, and severity levels.
Q.63 How do you ensure software efficiency in SQA?
Efficiency is assessed through performance testing to identify and optimize resource-intensive areas in the software.
Q.64 What is the role of exploratory testing in SQA?
Exploratory testing involves unscripted, informal testing to discover defects and evaluate the software from a user's perspective.
Q.65 How do you perform software recovery testing in SQA?
Recovery testing evaluates the software's ability to recover gracefully from failures or crashes, minimizing data loss.
Q.66 What is the interpretation of 80 - 20 rule/pareto analysis
80% of customers' complaints by volume are 20% of problems by categories.
Q.67 What is the primary objective of risk exposure analysis?
The primary objective of risk exposure analysis is estimating the impact of the risk on the project and the product.
Q.68 What is the purpose of software project planning as per CMMI?
Establish and maintain plans that define project activities.
Q.69 What are the reasons for software-related audit?
The reasons for software-related audit are : 1. Specific project milestone has been reached and an audit is initiated as planned or as required by the auditing organization’s charter. 2. Customers request an audit of a specific item, at a specific date. 3. Internal organization has requested the audit.
Q.70 What does ideal risk management minimizes ?
Ideal risk management minimizes spending and the negative effects of risks.
Q.71 How will you define responsibilities of a QA Analyst?
Then QA Analyst ensures that every possible measure has taken place for testing each and the feature of software solution both functionally and technically.

Some of the key responsibilities of QA Analyst are -
1. He should be able to execute and manage all the activities to meet the objectives of the test plan.
2. He should be able to choose the processes of high quality to develop the product.
3. He should be able to analyze the requirement and document procedures.
4. He should be able to document and re-verify all defects. Set the priority and severity of defects.
5. He should be able to create, document and maintain test cases.
Q.72 How do you define Test plan?
Test plan is a document that consists of scope, approach, resources, and outline of the testing project as well as the activities for tracking the progress of the project. The test plan is a record of processes which include -
1. Testing tasks
2. Testing environment
3. Design techniques
4. Entry and exit criteria
5. Any risks
Q.73 What is the priority of the testing tasks defined by the QA team in product development?
Testing tasks is performed as per the priority in the following ways -
1. A test plan is prepared consisting of the outline and scope of the testing project.
2. Test cases are prepared to cover all the major and minor functionalities with the full data required for testing.
3. Execution of the test cases as per the functionalities implemented with the coming builds of the testing project in the testing cycle.
4. Defect reporting with re-verification as well as tracking its progress. 5. Preparing the test execution report summary.
Q.74 What are the key challenges that are faced while performing Software Testing?
There are several challenges involved while performing Software Testing in it.
1. There is a lack of skilled tester who usually face the problem of subject awareness as well as lack of good knowledge of customer’s business.
2. Also time is considered as the factor, as usually testers focus mainly on task coverage rather than test coverage with quality testing when there is a huge list of task to be completed.
3. In order to decide which test case has to be executed first and with priority. This is usually achieved by the experience of work.
4. Requires a proper understanding of the requirements which can lead to all your testing efforts to zero, if the requirement is misunderstood.
5. Unavailability of best tools that are required to complete the testing with less time and more effectiveness.
6. Handling the relationship between testers and developers with good communication and analyzing skills.
Q.75 What do you understand by Use Case Testing?
Use case testing is a functional black box testing technique that captures the series of interactions which has occurred between ‘actors’ and ‘system’. Such that ‘Actors’ are the represented by the users and their interactions. Some of the characteristics of the use case testing are -
1.Organized Functional requirements of the project.
2. Records path or scenarios from start to finish.
3. Covers integration defects i.e. the defects that occurred as a result of interaction between different components.
4. Describes the main flows as well as the exceptional flow of the events.
5. Pre-conditions required for the use case to work should be specified earlier.
Q.76 What is Test Strategy?
Test Strategy is a set of guidelines or the testing approach usually carried out by the project manager to identify the test design and general testing approach. Such that it is found as a small section of test plan and is used by multiple projects. There are different test approaches that are followed, based on the factors like nature and domain of product, the risk of product failure, expertise in working with proposed tools, etc. Test Strategy approaches are further categorized as -
1. Proactive approach, where the test designs approach is started before the build is created. Therefore it helps in finding and fixing the bugs before the build.
2. Reactive approach, where the testing approach is started after the completion of test design and coding.
Q.77 What is the best time to start QA in a project?
With reference to the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), the Testing phase is executed after the ‘Implementation and Coding’ phase is completed. But according to today’s scenario, in order to achieve best results, it is suggested to start the QA of the project or product at the starting of the project. This approach will lead to the major advantages like -
1. Early process planning to meet customer’s quality expectations.
2. Good and healthy communication between the teams.
3. Gives ample amount of time that is required for setting up of the testing environment.
4. Allows early review and approval of test plans.
Q.78 What is Data-Driven Testing?
Every automation tester that automation test scripts cover only the area of the application to be tested with a recorded sequence of user actions. In general, these actions do not produce any error as only that input data are taken under conditions which we have entered while recording.
Data-driven testing occurs when we want the application to work as expected for any type of input values. Such that for this purpose, data required for data-driven testing are not hardcoded but test scripts take their data from data sources like CSV files, ODBC sources, etc.
1. To summarize, data-driven testing performs the following actions in the loop:
2. To take input test data from the storage.
3. Data entered in the application to perform actions.
4. To verify the actual results with the expected ones.
5. To again repeat the same steps with new input test data.
Q.79 What is Traceability Matrix and is it needed for every project?
In any project, traceability matrix is the means of tracking the progress of the project with respect to the implementation of new functionalities, enhancement of existing functionalities, etc. The traceability matrix, is used to keep an eye on the project progress with each and every aspect maintained as per the date.
The Parameters of Requirement Traceability matrix include:

1. Every section of requirement document is a point to be covered in RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix).
2. Headline of each point is the headline of each section in the requirement specification.
3. Corresponding test case ids are mentioned which are written for that particular section.
4. BUG/New Feature ID is also mentioned in each section.
5. Tracking of the feature is also maintained in which the build of the project and its feature has been implemented.
6. The section is fully tested or is still under testing status.
Q.80 Why is automation testing preferred over manual testing?
I would say automation testing and manual testing have their own importance and existence in the world of testing. Some of the important features due to which automation testing is preferred over manual testing are -
1. Same test script can be used every time to run the test thus automation testing is considered as the most reliable and efficient one.
2. Preferred in case of regression testing and repeated execution.
3. Automation testing is considered to be a cost-effective one in the case of long-term execution and thus ensures a better quality of software.
4. Test scripts are reusable, fast and everyone can see the results.
5. Tools used for automation testing are more fast and reliable when compared to the manual approach.
Q.81 Why is performance testing considered important for any application?
Performance testing is used to determine the behavior and response of an application under various situations. This assists to gather information with reference to application stability, scalability, speed, etc.

Some of the reasons for performance testing are - :

1. Helps to determine the response time and performance of an application component under the workload.
2. Helps to calculate the response time of user’s activity.
3. Uses experienced programmers with extensive technical language.
4. Helps to determine the behavior of the application under load i.e. when the number of the user increases instantly.
Q.82 What are the roles and responsibilities of Quality Assurance engineer?
The roles and responsibilities of a software quality assurance engineer are -
1. Responsible to monitor the entire development process.
2. Responsible to track the outcomes of each phase of SDLC and adjust them to meet the expectation.
3. Responsible to read and understand the requirement documents.
4. Responsible to analyze test requirements, and design and execute tests.
5. Responsible to develop test cases and prioritize testing activities.
6. Responsible to record problems and issues in accordance with the project’s problem and issue management plans.
7. Responsible to work with the application team and/or client to resolve any issues that arise in the testing process.
8. Responsible to carry out regression testing every time when changes are made to the code to fix defects.
9. Responsible to interact with the clients to better understand the product requirements.
10. Responsible to participate in walkthroughs of testing procedures.
Q.83 What is the process of QA testing?
QA testing process is a step by step process that involves analyzing requirement documents, preparing test strategy, test plan and test cases, executing test cases when the build is ready. QA’s is responsible to perform different types of testing to make sure the software reaches or exceeds the expectation, in the execution process..
Q.84 What do you understand by quality audit?
Quality audit is defined as the process of systematic and independent examination of a software product or process to test compliance with specifications, standards, agreements and other relevant criteria.
Q.85 Have you written any Test Strategy?
In general, test strategy document are prepared by Test Managers or Project Managers. Now if you are applying for a Project Manger position and also you have experience in preparing Test Strategy document then you can say - "Yes I have written a test strategy before"
"Else you can say I understand what is a test strategy and its purpose but I have never got a chance to write Test Strategy document.:
Q.86 How do you decide when you have tested enough?
As a project manager or project lead, we might face a situation to call off the testing to release the product early on. In those cases, you have to decide whether the testers have tested the product enough or not. Some features involved in the real time projects to decide when to stop testing are - 1. If we have reached Testing deadlines or release deadlines 2. By reaching the decided pass percentage of test cases 3. If the risk in the project is under the acceptable limit 4. If all the high priority bugs and blockers are fixed 5. If we meet the acceptance criteria Still it depends on the risks for the system being tested.
Q.87 What are the key points to consider while writing a bug report.
Some of the key points that should be considered while writing a bug report are - 1. It reproduce the bug 2-3 times. 2. It uses some keywords related to your bug and search in the Defect Tracking Tool. 3. It checks in similar modules. 4. It reports the problem immediately. 5. It writes detailed steps to reproduce the bug. 6. It writes a good defect summary. We must mind the language in the process of writing the bug report. . 7. It is advisable to Illustrate the issue by using proper screenshots. 8i. It Proofread the bug report twice or thrice before posting it.
Q.88 What do you understand by bug leakage and bug release?
We define them as - Bug Leakage can be defined as a bug which is actually missed by the testing team while testing and the build was released to the Production. Therefore if now that bug was found by the end user or customer then we call it as Bug Leakage. Bug release: It is defined as releasing the software to the Production with some known bugs then we call it as Bug Release. These known bugs should be included in the release note. In other case, releasing the software to the testing team with some known bugs whose severity and priority is low.
Q.89 What do you understand by CRUD testing?
CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) is the term used for Black box testing. CRUD testing is also used for database testing. C – Create – Creating a new Transaction R – Read/Retrieve – Searching or viewing a transaction U – Update – Editing or modifying an existing transaction. D – Delete – Deleting a transaction from the database
Q.90 What is bug life cycle?
Bug life cycle is also referred as Defect life cycle in the Software Development process, the bug has a life cycle. Such that the bug must go through the life cycle to be closed. Bug life cycle depends upon the tools (QC, JIRA etc.,) used and the process followed in the organization
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