Lean Manufacturing

Given below are some of the important interview questions on Lean Manufacturing prepared by experts to help you for the upcoming job interview.

Q.1 Which Japanese term refers to continuous improvement?
Kaizen is the Japanese term refers to continuous improvement.
Q.2 Which waste elimination technique focus on organizing the workplace?
5S is the waste elimination technique focus on organizing the workplace.
Q.3 What does the six sigma performance measurement involves?
Average and Variation computation
Q.4 How is lean manufacturing achieved by an organization?
lean manufacturing achieved by an organization by Elimination of Waste.
Q.5 Where is muri technique primarily applied?
Muri technique primarily applied to New product design.
Q.6 What are the key elements of Lean?

Some of the key elements of Lean are -

1. Empowering people to build trust between management and the workforce.

2. Eliminate waste 3. Make it as simple as possible as simple things are understood and remembered

4. Doing one thing at a time by focusing on problem-solving before moving

5. Smooth information flow with minimum friction.

6. Visual Interpretation help to know when a process is not functioning

7. Building quality – Products and processes perform as expected, first time and every time with consistency.

Q.7 Name the different types of waste in terms of Lean.

The basic types of waste are -

1. Correction

2. Overproduction

3. Inventory

4. Unnecessary Motion

5. Transportation

6. Delays

7.Complicated Process

8. Unutilized People skills

Q.8 Describe the typical process of implementing Lean?

The typical process of implementing lean is -

1. First it requires basic education of a company’s leadership, their understanding, and acceptance of the undertaking 2. Second step involves forming and educating of Kaizen Team of key employees in the use of Lean tools

3. Involves Project assessment, analysis, and selection

4. Focus on establishing goals and objectives

5. Conduct Kaizen event including Value Stream Mapping (VSM) inside your company’s four walls and 5S

6. Expand education of associates through original Kaizen Team

7. Understand how culture change is affecting the organization and communicate benefits continually

8. Continue Kaizen Events, communication, and leadership’s visual support of the program

Q.9 How long does it take to implement Lean?
The process of sustaining the momentum is the real challenge to any Lean undertaking. Due to which company leaders show their commitment. Clearly Improvements may begin quickly, however a Lean transformation may take 6 months or more. It might take a year or more before people truly adopt and accept the cultural changes required. As associates continue to see immediate payback for their involvement in Kaizen events a cultural foundation begins to take shape. Also as the process steps above are repeated positive results will reinforce the reason Lean was embraced by the organization’s leaders.
Q.10 Explain the term BOM.
The term "Bill Of Materials" refers to a list of items or parts that go into assembling a product. A lawn mower, for example, needs a handle assembly, a metal deck assembly, a control assembly, and a motor and blade assembly.
Q.11 What is DCR?
DCR stands for Document Change Request, which is a request for a change to a document, SOP (standard operating procedure), or specification that addresses a problem and proposes a solution.
Q.12 What is Kanban?
Kanban is a scheduling method that tells manufacturers how much to make, what to make, and when to make it. Inventory is only refilled in this system when visual indications such as an empty bin or cart are detected.
Q.13 What is MES?
The term "MES" refers to a system that organizes and regulates production on the factory floor in order to reduce the overall time it takes to complete an order.
Q.14 What is Six Sigma?
Six sigma is a data-driven methodology and approach for reducing faults in any process, from manufacturing to transactional to product and service.
Q.15 What is the difference between lean manufacturing and JIT (Just-in-Time) Manufacturing?
Lean Manufacturing re-examines the concept of just-in-time (JIT) from the customer's perspective. Anything created should offer value to the customer's requirements. For example, if you're designing a stereo system for a luxury car, you'll consider factors such as sound quality, durability, space occupancy, loud or medium sound, and so on. JIT (Just-in-Time) is a methodology for ensuring that a product or item is delivered just in time to be used. This method saves money by reducing the cost of underutilized goods and decreasing the requirement for stockpiling.
Q.16 What is QMS?
Quality Management System (QMS) is a document that contains all relevant information regarding a firm's design and operational controls, such as issue reporting, monitoring, continuous improvement, and training, in order to ensure that the organization produces a consistent product.
Q.17 What is batch production?
Batch production is a manufacturing technique that involves producing components or items in batches rather than in a continuous stream. When similar things are created simultaneously, this practise is commonly used.
Q.18 What is the challenge in manufacturing products?
The major issue in manufacturing is to improve production processes, guarantee that the proper materials and components are available at the lowest possible cost, reduce production time, eliminate waste, and maintain product quality.
Q.19 List out the factors that can affect the manufacturing process?
The factors affect the manufacturing process are: Supplies Equipment Factory Overhead Special Parts Work Force
Q.20 Define the term “factory overhead”?
Whatever costs are spent during the production process, excluding the cost of materials and direct labour, is referred to as "factory overhead."
Q.21 List out some of the examples of factory overhead?
Following are the overheads a production manufacturing engineer has to consider: Factory rent Utilities used in the unit Costs behind equipment set up Costs behind equipment maintenance Production unit supplies Insurance covered on equipment’s and production facilities Fringe benefits Depreciation QA Salaries Property taxes on manufacturing facilities Material management salaries
Q.22 How to supervise in a manufacturing unit?
Supervising a manufacturing process entails paying attention to each stage of the operation. In addition, the manufacturing supervisor should keep an eye on the inventory that will be used. Step 1: Keep track of the various stages of manufacture and determine whether the volume of goods produced by the crew is sufficient to meet demand. Step 2: Look for bottlenecks in the system and figure out how to fix them. Step 3: Keep inventory records and aim to limit the amount of liquid capital used once unneeded materials are removed. Step 4: Examine the finished goods to see if they fulfill the company's quality requirements.
Q.23 How can you calculate manufacturing work in progress?
When a manufacturing company transforms raw materials, labour, and factory overhead into work in progress, it is referred to as manufacturing work in progress. You may figure out the costs for the manufacturing work in progress by multiplying all of the factors listed below. the cost of labour Inventory expenses for raw materials Cost of production For the accounting period, the cost of completing work in progress
Q.24 What is product report?
A product report is a generic phrase for information about a product's design, manufacturing, quality, sales, and repair.
Q.25 What is RMA?
Return Material Authorization (RMA) is a financial and work order tracking system that is used to determine the provenance of a returned item. It's frequently used in transactions where a customer returns merchandise to the manufacturer for replacement or repair.
Q.26 What is SCAR (Supplier Corrective Action Request)?
Manufacturers rely heavily on their raw material suppliers, therefore SCAR is used to connect with them successfully. It's a request for a change that details the problems with a supplier's process or material and asks for a remedy. It may also offer information about how the issue should be handled.
Q.27 What are the software's which can be useful in manufacturing unit?
Manufacturing ERP and Material Management are two types of software that might be used in a manufacturing operation. SAP, Oracle ERP system, and others are some of the organizations that supply manufacturing software solutions.
Q.28 What is GMP?
GMP stands for good manufacturing practise, and it is used to monitor and manage the manufacturing of foods, medical equipment, and pharmaceutical items, as well as quality control testing.
Q.29 What are the approach used in manufacturing for QA?
The approaches used for QA in manufacturing are Acceptance sampling: Instead of testing the entire batch, a random sample is chosen from the batch. Statistical process control: A manufacturing product can be monitored using control charts and data obtained for samples at various phases of production. Troubleshooting studies: At the end of the line, a troubleshooting study can be conducted to check if changes in the input variables are linked to the output variables.
Q.30 What is Lean Methodology?
In health care, manufacturing, and other industries, lean approach is employed. It's a business concept in which companies try to generate a comprehensive flow of flow using particular elemental notions. The basic values of Lean Methodology are Continuous Improvement and Value Stream.
Q.31 What are the 5s methods?
The 5S was created with the purpose of reducing waste and increasing overall productivity by managing a workplace. It makes use of visual clues to achieve consistent results. The five pillars of 5S are essential in every production environment. The 5s is an abbreviation for: Seiri or Organize: Seiri separates superfluous materials from those that cannot be segregated, such as parts, tools, and instructions. Seiton (Orderliness): Organizes what's left by neatly arranging and identifying tools and parts for easy access. Seiketsu, or Standardize, is the process of scheduling maintenance and cleaning on a daily basis by managing seiton, seiri, and seiso. Cleanliness, or Seiso, organises a cleanup programme to keep the work space clean. Discipline, or Shitsuke, guarantees that 5S is ingrained in Lean Manufacturing. Shitsuke also explains how to follow up on the first four S's on the list.
Q.32 What are the benefits of 5s?
Enhances security Reduces the number of defects. Ensures that equipment is available at all times. Cost-cutting Increases the flexibility and agility of production Asset usage is improved. Employee morale is improved. Enhances the company's overall image among suppliers, customers, management, and employees.
Q.33 What is the purpose of volume leveling?
Mura, or unevenness, can be reduced through production leveling, which also minimizes Muda, or waste. In lean manufacturing, production levelling is critical for increasing efficiency. Volume levelling aims to create goods and products in a consistent and timely manner. The procedure must be followed in a predictable and consistent manner.
Q.34 What are Muri, Mura, and Muda?
When Toyota invented Lean Manufacturing, it created a revolutionary production system by removing three evils or enemies from the manufacturing process: Waste or Muda Overburden or Muri Mura, which means "inconsistency," is a Japanese word that means " Because all three opponents are linked, keeping them in check should be a major focus during the development process.
Q.35 What is Kanban in lean?
Kanban is a Lean Manufacturing technique for reducing inventory and labour waste. To reduce waste, Kanban focuses on pull production. Kanban is a technique for controlling item production based on demand and consumer supply. Rather than predicting the quantity of individual things required on the market. Kanban guarantees that things are produced in the most straightforward manner possible in response to market demands. Kanban also offers trial programmes for select personnel to get a taste of the holistic pull system and teamwork. Visual systems must become increasingly important.
Q.36 What are the benefits Kanban?
Boost Productivity Prioritizing production objectives reducing overhead costs Inventory that is no longer in use is reduced. It improves the flow. Transparency and control are provided to employees across the work space. Making cooperation a central tenet of operations Managers are provided with progress reports on a regular basis. In some industries, it reduces overall inventory by nearly 75%.
Q.37 What is SMED in Lean Manufacturing?
SMED (Single-Minute Exchange of Dies) is a lean system that drastically reduces the amount of time it takes to complete equipment transfiguration. In lean manufacturing, the basic essence of SMED is to convert external changeover steps. It streamlines and simplifies the decisive efforts at the same time.
Q.38 What are the benefits of SMED ?
When changeovers are speedier, it appears that equipment downtime will be reduced. In the end, this lowers the production cost. Faster changeovers would allow for more frequent product changes, resulting in reduced batch sizes. Smaller lots allow for more flexible scheduling by increasing responsiveness to client demand. The shortened changeover process increases both quality and consistency, making it easier for businesses to get off to a good start. The inventory levels are further reduced if the lot sizes are smaller.
Q.39 What are the seven waste products in Lean Manufacturing?
Muda refers to the lean process of eliminating waste. According to appearances, waste elimination occurs within the production system; Lean is responsible for several sorts of waste, including as constant human motion. Its goal is to integrate all of the procedures required for holistic, high-efficiency production. Simultaneously, it lowers total expenditures while increasing revenue. Inventory, defects, waiting, over-processing, transportation, and overproduction are now classified as seven categories of wastes in Lean Manufacturing.
Q.40 What are the crucial elements of Lean Manufacturing?
The following are the most important aspects of Lean Manufacturing: In order to develop trust between the workforce and management, empower people and fellow employees in the firm. Waste should be eliminated. Given that the primary motivation for firms to implement lean in their manufacturing plants is to reduce waste. It is critical to concentrate on this USP. Lean tries to simplify things as much as possible in order to make the entire process visible and simple to recall. As in production, concentrate on one issue at a time; there is always one or the other. In a very expressive approach, lean manufacturing could assist solve one problem after another without compromising.
Q.41 Explain the concept of the Fishbone diagram.
A fishbone diagram, also known as an Ishikawa diagram, is a visual technique for categorizing potential sources of a problem in order to find its fundamental causes.
Q.42 What is the load testing process?
The load testing procedure involves placing a demand on a software system or computing system and observing how it responds.
Q.43 What is Parkinson's law?
The proverb "work expands to fill the time available for completion" is Parkinson's law. It's sometimes used to describe an organization's growing bureaucracy.
Q.44 What is a value stream?
Value Streams are the processes taken by an organization to create solutions that deliver a constant flow of value to a customer. Each value stream in a SAFe portfolio is committed to building and supporting a set of solutions, which are the products, services, or systems offered to the Customer, whether inside or external to the Enterprise.
Q.45 What is process mapping?
A process map is a planning and management tool that depicts the flow of work in a visual manner. Process maps, created with process mapping software, depict a sequence of actions that lead to a specific outcome. A flowchart, process flowchart, process chart, functional process chart, functional flowchart, process model, workflow diagram, business flow diagram, or process flow diagram is another name for a process map. It can be used in any business or organization to highlight who and what is engaged in a process and can reveal areas where the process could be improved.
Q.46 What is the Lean methodology?
Although lean methodology is not a new concept, its modern implementation in business is. Lean began as a manufacturing process strategy before becoming a business paradigm. 
Q.47 What is the SCAMPER method?
Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify (also magnify and minify), Put to another use, Eliminate, and Reverse (SCAMPER) is an acronym constructed from the abbreviations of: Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify (also magnify and minify), Put to another use, Eliminate, and Reverse. SCAMPER is a lateral thinking approach that lets you explore new alternatives by challenging the current quo.
Q.48 What is cross docking?
Cross docking is a logistics process in which products from a supplier or manufacturing plant are delivered straight to a consumer or retail chain with little or no processing or storage time. Cross docking takes occur in a distribution docking terminal, which usually has trucks and dock doors on two sides (inbound and outgoing) and little storage space. The procedure of accepting products through an inbound dock and then transferring them across the dock to an outbound transportation pier is known as cross docking.
Q.49 What is poka yoke?
Shigeo Shingo, an industrial engineer of Toyota, created the phrase Poka-Yoke (poh-kah yoh-keh) in Japan during the 1960s. Shingo also developed and codified Zero Quality Control, which combines Poka-Yoke procedures for defect correction and source inspection for defect prevention.
Q.50 What is a GANTT chart?
A Gantt chart, which is widely used in project management, is one of the most popular and useful ways to depict activities (tasks or events) against time. A list of the activities may be found on the left side of the chart, and a suitable time scale can be found along the top. Each action is represented by a bar, whose location and length indicate the activity's start, duration, and end dates.
Q.51 What is Takt Time?
Takt time refers to the rate at which you must finish a product in order to meet client demand. If you receive a new product order every four hours, for example, your team must complete a product in four hours or fewer to meet demand. Takt time is your sell rate, and it's easy to think of it as the heartbeat of your business. It enables you to best utilize your capacity in order to satisfy demand without maintaining excessive inventory on hand.
Q.52 What is TQM?
Total quality management (TQM) is defined as a management technique that focuses on long-term performance through customer satisfaction. All members of an organization participate in a TQM Endeavour by working to improve processes, products, services, and the culture in which they operate.
Q.53 What is a balanced scorecard?
A balanced scorecard is a strategy performance management tool — a well-structured report that managers may use to keep track of the activities carried out by workers under their supervision and the repercussions of these actions.
Q.54 Define what is a perpetual inventory system?
A perpetual inventory system is an inventory management strategy that uses an inventory management system that automates the process to track when merchandise is sold or received in real-time. Changes in inventory will be recorded in a perpetual inventory system at the time of the transaction.
Q.55 How to Define Takt Time?
Takt time is derived from the German word Taktzeit, which might mean "measurement," "cycle," or "pulse" time, depending on the source. Simply put, takt time refers to the amount of time it takes a producer to produce enough goods per unit to meet client demand.
Q.56 Who should be involved in Lean manufacturing?
Any facility that wants to implement or grow Lean manufacturing must carefully consider who should be involved in the process. In reality, Lean manufacturing will necessitate some form of participation from everyone in the plant. While there may be a few people who act as the Lean leadership team, in order to achieve the best results, everyone must be involved.
Q.57 Why is Lean manufacturing called Lean?
Lean manufacturing is a common method for helping businesses decrease waste and enhance their facility's bottom line. The approach is so well-known that many people aren't even aware of its name, but it is unusual. As a result, the question of why it's named Lean Manufacturing may arise. A manufacturing manager makes a joke about this, saying that he hopes Lean refers to working effectively rather than staff leaning against a wall with nothing to do. In this case, the joke does allude to the true definition of the word lean. “Thin, especially healthy so; having no excess fat,” says the first dictionary definition of lean. It's easy to see where the name originates from when you look at that definition and see how Lean Manufacturing focuses on minimizing waste and unnecessary labour.
Q.58 What does FTA stand for?
A free trade agreement is an agreement between two or more countries to lower tariffs on imports and exports. Goods and services can be bought and sold across international borders with little or no government tariffs, quotas, subsidies, or restrictions to obstruct their interchange under a free trade policy.
Q.59 What do the letters in the acronym DOWNTIME refer to in Lean Methodology?
The acronym for the eight wastes is DOWNTIME. Downtime stands for: Defects Overproduction Waiting Not utilizing talent Transportation Inventory excess Motion waste Excess processing
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