DevOps

DevOps is a set of software development practices that combines software development and information technology operations to shorten the systems development life cycle, there are various tools used in DevOps like Jenkins, Docker, Ansible etc. We have curated some popular questions which will help you in DevOps Interviews.

Q.1 What are the core operations of DevOps?
The core operations of DevOps area as follows:
1. application development
2. code developing
3. code coverage
4. unit testing
5. packaging
6. deployment with infrastructure
7. provisioning
8. configuration
9. orchestration, and deployment.
Q.2 What is Jenkins?
Jenkins is an open source automation tool written in Java with plugins built for Continuous Integration purpose. Jenkins is used to build and test your software projects continuously making it easier for developers to integrate changes to the project, and making it easier for users to obtain a fresh build.
Q.3 What is DevOps and how it works?
DevOps is the practice of operations and development engineers participating together in the entire service lifecycle, from design through the development process to production support. DevOps is also characterized by operations staff making use many of the same techniques as developers for their systems work.
Q.4 What is the difference between Docker and Jenkins?
Jenkins and Docker compliment each other in the different ways.
1. For any project, you would need deployment pipeline to automate the deployment, Jenkins takes care of Continuous integration & Continuous deployment of software artifacts.
2. Docker is container engine which holds your application. Jenkins can also build Docker Images based on a Dockerfile, you can use Docker plugin for Jenkins to build the containers.
Q.5 What is the purpose of Docker?
Docker is a light-weight application engine that deploys VM-like containers. It shares system level resources to allow easy deploy and multi-tenancy. But it has its own network and process space, as well as a layered union mount file system. It's all written in Go.
Q.6 What are the components of Docker?
There are three main components of docker.
1. docker client,
2. docker daemon or server (REST API)
3. docker containers.
Q.7 How big is the docker container?
The docker container rootfs (lossely speaking, the operating system FS layer) and tmpfs can be of any size depending on the service you are dockerinzing. A small python app can be under 1MB or an full blown service can range around 16G or whatever it is configured to be.
Q.8 What is docker engine?
A Docker engine is the part of Docker, it creates and runs Docker containers.
Q.9 Why Docker is a winner versus VMs?
Here are the following reasons
1. Docker containers take milliseconds to start, VMs take minutes!
2. You can run hundreds or thousands of containers on a single laptop, but you can't run a fraction of that of VMs because they are much heavier weight.
3. Docker containers are also a favorite light weight "packaging" format. Where developers can package their apps in containers that are easily published and consumed by others.
Q.10 What are some of the key benefits of DevOps?
  • Ensure faster deployment
  • Stabilize work environment
  • Meaningful improvement in product quality
  • Automation in repetitive tasks leaves more room for innovation
  • Advances agility in your business
  • Fast and good problem-solving techniques
  • Minimal cost of production
Q.11 What makes DevOps successful in an organization?
  • Continuous integrated operation
  • Constant delivery
  • Consistent and constant communication among different teams
  • Less manual management of infrastructure
  • Configuration Management
Q.12 How does DevOps technically benefits a company?
  • Less complex problems to fix
  • Continuous software delivery
  • Faster bugs resolution.
Q.13 What is the center operation of DevOps with infrastructure?
  • Code building
  • Code coverage
  • Unit testing Packaging Deployment
Q.14 What is the core development of DevOps with application development?
  • Provisioning
  • Configuration
  • Orchestration
  • Deployment
Q.15 Which scripting tools are used in DevOps?
Both Python and Ruby scripting tools are used in DevOps.
Q.16 Why do open source tools boost DevOps?
Open source tools are essentially used by any organization which is accommodated by the DevOps pipeline because DevOps came with the focus of automation in different aspects of organization build, change management release, and infrastructure management areas.
Q.17 What is the use of SSH?

SSH stands for Secure Shell and is an administrative protocol that lets users have access and control the remote servers over the Internet to work using the command line. SSH is a secured encrypted version of the previously known Telnet which was unencrypted and not secure. This ensured that the communication with the remote server occurs in an encrypted form.

Q.18 What is the use of PTR in DNS?
PTR is a pointer record that is used for a reverse DNS lookup.
Q.19 What is CBD?
Component-Based Development (CBD) is a unique way to approach product development. In this method, developers always look for existing well-defined, tested, and verified components to compose and assemble them to a product instead of developing from scratch.
Q.20 What do you understand by the DevOps pipeline?
A pipeline in the software engineering team is a set of automated processes which allows DevOps professionals and developers to reliably and efficiently compile, build, and deploy their code to their production compute platforms.
Q.21 What do you mean by DevOps Automation?
Automation is the crucial need for DevOps practices, and automate everything is the fundamental principle of DevOps. Automation kick starts from the code generation on the developer's machine, until the code is pushed to the code, to monitor the application and system in the production.
Q.22 Explain at what instance has used the SSH.
We can use SSH to log into a remote machine and work on the command line. Also, you can use it to tunnel into the system to facilitate secure encrypted communication between two hosts over an insecure network.
Q.23 What is the role of AWS in DevOps?
AWS is a cloud-based service provided by Amazon that ensures scalability through unlimited computing power and storage. It empowers IT enterprises to develop and deliver experienced products and deploy applications on the cloud.
Q.24 What is configuration management?
Configuration management (CM) is basically a practice of systematic handling of the changes in such a way that system does not lose its integrity over a period of time. This involves certain policies, techniques, procedures, and tools for evaluating change proposals, managing them, and tracking their progress along with maintaining appropriate documentation for the same.
Q.25 What is Continuous Integration (CI)?
Continuous Integration (CI) is a software development practice that makes sure developers integrate their code into a shared repository as and when they are done working on the feature. Each integration is verified by means of an automated build process that allows teams to detect problems in their code at a very early stage rather than finding them after the deployment.
Q.26 What is version control?
It is a system that records the changes to a file or set of files over time so you can recall specific versions. The version control system consists of a central shared repository where teammates can commit the changes to a file or set of files. It allows To revert the file to the previous state To compare changes over time To revert the entire project to a previous state To see who modified something in the files
Q.27 What is DevOps pipeline?
DevOps pipeline is a pipeline that allows the DevOps engineers and the software developers to efficiently and reliably compile, build and deploy the software code to the production environments in a hassle-free manner.
Q.28 How does Ansible work in DevOps?
It is a DevOps open-source automation tool that helps in modernizing the development and deployment process of applications in a faster manner. It has gained popularity due to simplicity in understanding, using, and adopting it which largely helped people across the globe to work in a collaborative manner.
Q.29 Explain pair programming regarding DevOps.
Pair programming is an engineering practice of Extreme Programming Rules. In this case, two programmers work on the same system on the same design or algorithm. For Example One programmer act as a Driver and the other as an Observer who continuously monitors the progress of a project to identify problems. The roles can be reversed at any point of time without any prior intimation.
Q.30 Name some popular tools of DevOps.
Jenkins Ansible Nagios Git
Q.31 What are containers?
Containers are form of lightweight virtualization, heavier than ‘chroot’ while lighter than ‘hypervisors’. They provide isolation among processes.
Q.32 What is a Continuous Delivery?
It is practice of delivering the software for testing as soon as it is built by CI- Continuous Integration, servers.
Q.33 What is a Git?
A Git is a Distributed Version Control system (DVCS). It can track changes to a file and allows you to respond back to any particular change.
Q.34 In Git how do you retort a commit that has already been pushed and made public?
There are two ways to do it:
By disconnecting or fixing the bad file in a new commit and pushing it to the remote repository. Once the required changes has been made to the files, commit it to the remote repository. Use: git commit -m “commit message”
By forming a new commit that undoes all changes that were made in the bad commit. To do this, use command: git revert .
Q.35 What is Git bisect?
By using binary search Git bisect is used to find the commit that introduced a bug.
Q.36 What is the need of a Continuous Integration of Dev & Testing?
By replacing the traditional practice of testing after completing all development, continuous Integration of Dev and Testing improves the quality of software, and reduces the time taken to deliver it.
Q.37 What is Dogpile effect? 
It is also referred to as cache stampede which can occur when huge parallel computing systems employing caching strategies are subjected to very high load. It is referred to as that event that occurs when the cache expires (or invalidated) and multiple requests are hit to the website at the same time.
Q.38 What is Vagrant and its uses?
Vagrant is a tool that can create and manage virtualized i.e. or containerized environments for testing and developing software.
Q.39 What do you understand by post mortem meetings?
Post Mortem meetings are those that are arranged to discuss if certain things go wrong while implementing the DevOps methodology. When this meeting is conducted, it is expected that the team has to arrive at steps that need to be taken in order to avoid the failure(s) in the future.
Q.40 What do you mean by Continuous Integration?
It is a development practice requiring developers to integrate code into a shared repository several times a day.
Q.41 What’s a PTR in DNS?
Pointer (PTR) record is used for reveres DNS (Domain Name System) lookup.
Q.42 How can you ensure a script runs every time repository gets new commits through Git push?
There are three means of setting up a script on the destination repository to get executed depending on when the script has to be triggered exactly. These means are called hooks and they are of three types:

  • Pre-receive hook
  • Update hook
  • Post-receive hook
Q.43 What do you mean by Continuous Testing?
To obtain an instant feedback on the business risks associated with in the latest build, Continuous Testing is the procedure of executing automated tests as part of the software delivery pipeline.
Q.44 What is Automation Testing?
To test the application/system under test, automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process.
Q.45 List the key elements of continuous testing?
Risk assessment, advanced analysis, policy analysis, requirements traceability, test optimisation, and service virtualisation.
Q.46 Name the testing types supported by Selenium?
The testing process supported by Selenium are: Regression testing and functional testing
Q.47 What difference does asset Management holds from Configuration Management
If we define the asset Management, broadly it cites to any system that monitors and maintains things of value to an entity or group.
Configuration Management is the process of planning for, controlling, identifying, and verifying the Configurations Items (CIs) within a service, recording their status and, in support of Change Management, assessing the potential IT impact of changing those items.
Q.48 What is Puppet?
It is a Configuration Management tool, used to automate administration tasks.
Q.49 How does HTTP work?
Like most other protocols the HTTP protocol works in a client and server model. A web browser using which a request is initiated is tagged as a client and a web server software which retorts to that request is called a server. In the standardization of the HTTP protocol, World Wide Web Consortium and the Internet Engineering Task Force are two imp the ortant spokes.
Q.50 Describe two-factor authentication?
Two-factor authentication is a security process in which two means of identification are provided by the two users from separate categories of credentials.
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