Business Communications

Communications is one of the key area while interviewing, you must have strong communication skills to answers the questions correctly, check out the interview questions in Business communication to help you in your preparation.

Q.1 What is the difference between Macro-culture and Micro-culture?
Macro-culture comprises all the arts, beliefs and institutions such as legal, governmental, business, educational and social which characterises an ethnic group, race or nation, while a narrower micro-culture exists within the macro-culture. The micro-culture includes the characteristic attitudes and behaviour operating within a group, an organisation or a nation. Macroculture generally consists of the culture which influences the majority of the people. In United States, macroculture reflects to the traditions of Western Europe. Where a micro-culture could be the aboriginal community within the larger Australian community.
Q.2 What is a marketing communication?
Marketing communication is referred as the efforts made by the seller to convey the message to his buyers and to accept it in retrievable form. The primary point of communication process is persuasion such that it is totally goal oriented. Such that each of its tool consists of specific complexities and potentialities that justify managerial specialization.
Q.3 What do you understand by Interruption Marketing?
We can define interruption marketing as the process of promoting a product by the means of advertising, public relation and sales. Interruption marketing is not suitable every time and depends from one organization to another. It is very much sales directed, so when a organization has limited funds to invest for advertising and wants quick results then interruption marketing is considered as the best option.
Q.4 What do you understand by test marketing?
Test marketing can be defined as the process to test the various variability’s including the elements of the product in a marketing plan. Test marketing projects the actual launching of the whole marketing program but on a limited basis. Test Marketing is the last step before the product is released.
Q.5 What are the different types of marketing research?
The various marketing research are - Field research - Related to the research for a specific purpose, Desk research - Conducted for one purpose initially but gradually it is used to support another goal. Exploratory research - Investigates an assumption Predictive research - To predict any future occurrence Conclusive research - To derive a conclusion of a research process
Q.6 What is Channel error?
If there is disturbance in the phone call, and the detailing cannot be comprehended by the other person it is called channel error.
Q.7 What is paraphrasing in empathic listening?
In empathic listening, paraphrasing refers to restating in your own words the feelings of the speaker.
Q.8 Email is appropriate for which type of messages?
Email is especially appropriate for informative and positive messages.
Q.9 When can an effective communication be achieved?
Effective communication can only be achieved when : (1) The audience is understood (2) Feedback is encouraged (3) Thoughts are organized
Q.10 What are the characteristics of communication?
The characterstis of communication are : (1) It involves a sender and a receiver of information (2) It is successful when the receiver interprets the meaning in the same way as that intended by the sender (3) It would be verbal and non-verbal (4) It is unavoidable
Q.11 What are the responsibilities of a business communications specialist?
Business communications specialists are responsible for developing effective corporate communication strategies. Secondly, they manage internal communications, draft content for mass media or company websites as well as organize initiatives and plan events or press conferences. Thirdly, they foster relationships with advocates and key persons. Next, a business communications specialist interacts with marketing professionals for producing copy for advertisements or articles. Lastly, they execute “damage control” in cases of bad publicity and help in the communication of strategies or messages from senior leadership.
Q.12 Name the types of Business Communication Theories.
There are many types of business communication theories, some of them are: Cognitive Dissonance Theory Communication Accommodation Theory Coordinated Management of Meaning Cultivation Analysis Cultural Approach to Organizations Symbolic Interaction Theory Dramatism Theory
Q.13 Define Cognitive Dissonance and Communication Accommodation Theory.
Cognitive Dissonance theory proposed that people are likely to avoid the experience of dissonance as it is not acceptable for them to agree with. They wish to avoid such feelings without listening to anyone’s views, as the views of other people are debatable. Whereas, communication Accommodation Theory covers the motivational aspects and results of the transference of communication styles between two people. Theorists proposed that people transfer their communication styles into two ways: convergence and divergence.
Q.14 What do you understand about symbolic interaction and dramatism theory?
Symbolic Interaction Theory states that people make communication by creating symbols, and assign them meanings accordingly by the associations of events and places. This theory is derived from American pragmatism, especially from the work of George Herbert Mead. And, Dramatism Theory compares communication with drama. As for dramas, a situation, script, and actor are needed, the same thing is demanded by Dramatism business communication theory. However, this theory is presented by Kenneth Burke as a meta-method of analyzing human relationships, and this specifies that a successful verbal critic is the one who provides meaningful communication to its rhetoric by developing a sense of identity among them.
Q.15 How many types of Communication are there?
The types of communication include: Verbal communication Storytelling Crucial Communication Written Communication Non-verbal communication
Q.16 Define Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication.
Verbal communications in business take place over the phone or in person. The mode of the Message is oral. In this, the message is being conveyed from the Sender to the Receiver by telephone. However, Nonverbal Communication states what you say is a vital part of any communication. But what you don’t say can be even more important. Research shows that 55% of in-person communication comes from nonverbal signs like facial expressions, body stance, and tone of voice. Further, nonverbal signs can also affect whether you get a job offer.
Q.17 Define storytelling and written communication.
Storytelling has been shown to be an effective form of verbal communication. This serves an important organizational function by helping in constructing common meanings for individuals inside the organization. Stories can help clarify key values and help demonstrate how things are done within an organization, and story frequency, strength, and tone are related to higher organizational commitment. Written Communication can be considered as printed messages. Examples of written communications include memos, proposals, e-mails, letters, training manuals, and operating policies. They may be printed on paper, handwritten, or appear on the screen. Normally, verbal communication takes place in real-time. Written communication, can be constructed over a longer period of time. This type of communication is often asynchronous in which the Sender can write a Message that the Receiver can read at any time, unlike a conversation that is carried on in real-time. This can be read by many people that act as “one-to-many” communication.
Q.18 What are the barriers to effective communication?
The process of communication has many barriers. The intended communique will often be disturbed and distorted leading to a condition of misunderstanding and failure of communication. The Barriers to effective communication could be of many types like: 1. Language Barriers The language barrier is one of the main barriers that limit effective communication. Language is the most commonly employed tool of communication. The fact that each major region has its own language is one of the Barriers to effective communication. 2. Emotional Barriers The emotional IQ of a person decides the ease and comfort with which they can communicate. A person who is emotionally mature will be able to communicate effectively. And, who is not will face certain difficulties. 3. Organizational Structure Barriers As there are many methods of communication at an organizational level. Every method has its own problems and constraints that may become barriers to effective communication. Most of these barriers arise because of misinformation or lack of appropriate transparency available to the employees. 4. Attitude Barriers Certain people like to be left alone. They are introverts or just people who are not very social. Others like to be social. Both these cases could become a barrier to communication. Some people have attitude issues, like huge egos and inconsiderate behaviors.
Q.19 Why Group Discussion is important?
Firstly, GD helps in evaluating whether a candidate is the right fit for the organization. This process examines how a participant performs under different situations in a group. Thirdly, it helps to judge how one conceptualizes his ideas through the discussion. GD, analyze the candidate’s attitude towards fellow members through one’s communication and interpersonal skills, listening ability, humility, and tolerance to others’ ideas. Lastly, it helps in highlighting the candidate’s leadership and managerial skills, problem-solving aptitude, creative thinking, and knowledge on diverse topics.
Q.20 What do you understand about the personal interview?
A personal Interview is a leading tool for judging the abilities of a person. In the face-to-face contact between the interviewer and interviewee, it is possible to record more than only verbal responses that are often superficial. However, when people communicate directly with each other, much more information is communicated. The nature of words used, facial expressions & body language- together contribute to judging a person.
Q.21 What is Curriculum Vitae (CV)?
CV presents a full history of your academic credentials, so the length of the document is variable. They are used by individuals seeking fellowships, grants, postdoctoral positions, and teaching/research positions in postsecondary institutions, or high-level research positions in the industry. Graduate school applications typically request a CV, but in general, are looking for a resume that covers any publications and descriptions of research projects
Q.22 Define cultural etiquettes.
Cultural etiquette refers to the codes of behavior that rule different cultures or what's acceptable and what isn't in society. This is experienced by travelers when faced with irreconcilable cultural differences.
Q.23 Describe some of the Workplace Etiquette.
Firstly, arrive early. Secondly, network with people outside of your cubicle. Thirdly, always be willing to help out a coworker. Next, bring in goodies. Create a proper personal email address. Always jump at the chance to complete a new task. Always stay flexible. Lastly, dress appropriately for the office.
Q.24 Define Presentation skills.
These are the skills you require in delivering effective and engaging presentations to a variety of audiences. These skills include a variety of areas such as the structure of your presentation, the design of your slides, the tone of your voice, and the body language you convey.
Q.25 What is Negotiation?
Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. This is a process by which compromise or agreement is reached while avoiding argument and dispute. However, in any disagreement, individuals understandably focus to achieve the best possible outcome for their position. And, the principles of fairness, seeking mutual benefit, and maintaining a relationship are the keys to a successful outcome.
Q.26 Name the various stages of Negotiation.
For achieving a desirable outcome, it may be useful to follow a structured approach to negotiation. However, the process of negotiation includes the stages like: Preparation Discussion Clarification of goals Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome Agreement Implementation of a course of action
Q.27 Explaining the steps for formatting a Business Letter.
Firstly, write the date and your recipient's name, company, and address. Secondly, select a professional greeting, like “Dear,”. Then, craft a compelling introduction. After that, state your intent in the letter’s body text. Next, end your letter with a strong call to action. Select a professional closing, like “Sincerely,”. Then, physically sign the letter with your signature. Lastly, type your name, address, phone number, and email address.
Q.28 Explain the types of Communication Styles.
1. Passive Individuals who use the passive communication style often act indifferently, yielding to others. Passive communicators usually fail in expressing their feelings or needs, allowing others to express themselves. Frequently, a passive communicator’s lack of outward communication can result in misunderstanding, anger build-up, or resentment. 2. Aggressive This is often apparent when someone communicates in an aggressive manner. For example, You’ll hear it. You’ll see it. You may even feel it. However, the aggressive communication style is emphasized by speaking in a loud and demanding voice, maintaining intense eye contact, and dominating or controlling others by blaming, intimidating, criticizing, threatening, or attacking them, among other traits. 3. Passive-Aggressive Passive-aggressive communication style users stay passive on the surface, but inside they may feel powerless or stuck, creating a resentment that leads to seething or acting out in subtle, indirect, or secret ways. However, most passive-aggressive communicators will mutter to themselves rather than confront a person or issue. 4. Assertive The assertive communication style features an open communication link while not being overbearing. Assertive communicators can express their own needs, desires, ideas, and feelings, while also considering the needs of others. Assertive communicators aim for both sides to win in a situation, balancing one’s rights with the rights of others.
Q.29 How many types of Written Communication are there?
Written communication involves any type of message that makes use of the written word. However, some of the various forms of written communications are: Memos Reports Bulletins Job descriptions Employee manuals Emails Instant messages Further, examples of written communications generally used with clients or other businesses include: Email Internet websites Letters Proposals Telegrams Faxes Postcards Contracts Advertisements Brochures News releases
Q.30 Explain the wrong business etiquette that people do.
Business etiquettes refer to a set of rules that govern the way people interact with one another in business, with customers, suppliers, with inside or outside bodies. However, some of the mistakes the people do include: Firstly, not greeting or using a name. Secondly, leaving people waiting Thirdly, interrupting Next, lack of courtesy and respect Lastly, breaking a confidence
Q.31 Explain the types of business communication.
The types of business communication include: 1. Upward communication This communication comes from a direct report to a manager, and from a manager to a top-level executive or owner. This allows those in charge for keeping a finger on the pulse of what’s happening on the ground floor. 2. Downward communication This communication flows from management to direct reports. Messages flow through a predetermined hierarchy, from the top down. 3. Lateral communication This communication moves across departments and employees or managers of equal status within the organization. 4. External communication This communication moves information from the inside of the organization to outside parties, such as prospects, customers, investors, vendors, partners, sponsors, lawmakers, regulatory bodies, the media, consultants, or the general public.
Q.32 What are the major points to consider for effective Cross-Cultural Communication?
Some of the tips for effective cross-cultural communication: Firstly, maintain etiquette. Many cultures have specific etiquette around the way they communicate. Before you meet, research the target culture, or if time allows, do some cross-cultural training. Secondly, avoid slang. Not even the most educated non-native English speaker will have a comprehensive understanding of English slang, idioms, and sayings. Thirdly, speak slowly. Even if English is the common language in a cross-cultural situation it’s not a good idea to speak at your normal conversational speed. Next, keep it simple. In a cross-cultural conversation, there’s no need to make it harder for both of you by using big words. Then, practice active listening. Active listening is a very effective strategy for improving cross-cultural communication. Take turns to talk. Make the conversation flow more freely by taking it in turns to speak. Lastly, write things down. If you’re not sure whether the other person has understood you properly, write it down to make sure.
Q.33 What are the advantages of Oral Communication?
Firstly, there is a high level of understanding and transparency in oral communication as it is interpersonal. Secondly, there is no component of rigidity in oral communication. There is flexibility for enabling changes in the decisions previously taken. Thirdly, the feedback is impulsive in the case of oral communication. As a result, decisions can be made quickly without any delay. Lastly, it is time-saving and is best in case of problem resolution.
Q.34 Define Oral Communication.
Oral communication can be considered as communication through mouth. It includes individuals conversing with each other, be it direct conversation or telephonic conversation. Speeches, presentations, discussions are all forms of oral communication. This communication is generally recommended when the communication matter is of a temporary kind or where a direct interaction is necessary. However, face-to-face communication is significant so as for building rapport and trust.
Q.35 Name the types of nonverbal communication.
Some of the nonverbal communication or body language include: Facial expressions. Body movement and posture. Gestures. Eye contact. Space. Voice.
Q.36 What are the key skills for effective Intercultural Communication?
Intercultural communication means communication between different cultures. Some cultures have a more formal means of communication, whereas other cultures may have a more informal approach. To have effective intercultural communication one must: Firstly, learn about different cultures and values. Secondly, join international associations, organizations, and clubs. Thirdly, mirror their body language. Next, learn the language. Lastly, always be open-minded.
Q.37 Define Interpersonal communication.
This can be considered as an exchange of information between two or more people. This is also an area of research that seeks to understand how humans use verbal and nonverbal signs for accomplishing a number of personal and relational goals. However, interpersonal communication research addresses at least six categories of inquiry: Firstly, how humans adjust and adapt their verbal communication and nonverbal communication during face-to-face communication Secondly, how messages are produced Thirdly, how uncertainty influences behavior and information-management strategies Next, deceptive communication Then, relational dialectics Lastly, social interactions
Q.38 Define a communication network.
This refers to the pattern of directions in which information flows in the organization. Channels of communication are either formal networks or informal networks. In which the formal networks follow the authority chain and are limited to task-related communications. And, the informal network is free to move in any direction, skip authority levels, and is as likely to satisfy group members' social needs as it is to facilitate task accomplishments.
Q.39 Explain the types of Communication Networks in Organizations.
Types of Communication Networks in Organizations are: 1. Chain Network In this, the communication travels up and down through the hierarchy. Every person communicates with only the person directly above or below in terms of reporting relationships. 2. Y Network In this, the flow of communication resembles an upside down Y. And, information flows upward and downward through the hierarchy, widening to surround the number of employees reporting to a supervisor. 3. Wheel Network In this, the information flows to and from a single person. Employees in the group communicate primarily with that person rather than with each other. 4. Circle Network In this, the employees communicate only with adjoining members of the organization. However, the circle network is comparable to a group working in a physical arrangement such that workers can communicate with their immediate neighbors but not with others in the group. 5. The All-Channel Network or the Star Network In this, communications flow upward, downward, and laterally among all members of the group. This pattern of communication supports an impartial participative culture and fosters cross-functional efforts.
Q.40 Define Organizational communication.
This is defined as the channels and forms of communication that occur inside organizations, such as corporations, non-profits, and governmental bodies. This includes both communications inside an organization and public-facing communications. However, individuals trained in organizational communication can work in human resources, employee training and management, public relations, marketing, communications consulting, public affairs, media management, policy and advocacy, and research and instruction, among other areas.
Q.41 What are the major elements of the communication process?
The major elements of communication include: Sender Ideas Encoding Communication channel Receiver Decoding Feedback.
Q.42 Describe the seven Cs of Communication.
1. Clear When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in communicating with this person? If you’re not sure, then your audience won’t be sure either. 2. Concise When you are concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience doesn’t want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three. 3. Concrete When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you’re telling them. There are details and vivid facts, and there’s the laser-like focus. Your message is solid. 4. Correct When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free communication. 5. Coherent When your communication is coherent, it’s logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main topic, and the tone and flow of the text are consistent. 6. Complete In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take action. 7. Courteous In this, there are no hidden insults or passive-aggressive tones. You keep your reader’s viewpoint in mind, and you’re empathetic to their needs.
Q.43 What do you understand by the term affective communication?
Affective communication is the process using which people express feelings about things, themselves, and others. These can be expressions of positive and negative feelings about places, objects, events, policies, and ideas are called opinions.
Q.44 Define imaginative communication.
Imaginative communication may be defined as the process using which invented situations are created and shared. Whenever people invent jokes or stories, speculate, daydream, or make-believe, they are engaged in imaginative communication. People also engage in imaginative communication when they appreciate fictional messages found in books, magazines, newspapers, films, television dramas, plays, and conversations.
Q.45 Define intrapersonal communication.
Intrapersonal communication requires communication with oneself. People normally communicate with themselves when they are alone in private or semi-private places. When people talk to themselves aloud in crowded, public places, others find such behavior strange.
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