Job design follows job analysis i.e. it is the next step after job analysis. It aims at outlining and organizing tasks, duties and responsibilities into a single unit of work for the achievement of certain objectives. It also outlines the methods and relationships that are essential for the success of a certain job. In simpler terms it refers to the what, how much, how many and the order of the tasks for a job/s.
Job design essentially involves integrating job responsibilities or content and certain qualifications that are required to perform the same. It outlines the job responsibilities very clearly and also helps in attracting the right candidates to the right job. Further it also makes the job look interesting and specialized.
There are various steps involved in job design that follow a logical sequence, those that were mentioned earlier on. The sequence is as follows,
- What tasks are required to e done or what tasks is part of the job?
- How are the tasks performed?
- What amount are tasks are required to be done?
- What is the sequence of performing these tasks?
Benefits of Job Design
The following are the benefits of a good job design:
- Employee Input: A good job design enables a good job feedback. Employees have the option to vary tasks as per their personal and social needs, habits and circumstances in the workplace.
- Employee Training: Training is an integral part of job design. Contrary to the philosophy of “leave them alone’ job design lays due emphasis on training people so that are well aware of what their job demands and how it is to be done.
- Work / Rest Schedules: It offers good work and rest schedule by clearly defining the number of hours an individual has to spend in his/her job.
- Adjustments: Good job designs allows for adjustments for physically demanding jobs by minimising the energy spent doing the job and by aligning the manpower requirements for the same.
A well designed job will encourage a variety of ‘good’ body positions, have reasonable strength requirements, require a reasonable amount of mental activity, and help foster feelings of achievement and self-esteem.
How can it help with the organization of work?
Job design principles can address problems such as:
- work overload,
- work underload,
- limited control over work,
- delays in filling vacant positions,
- excessive working hours, and
- limited understanding of the whole job process.