Classification of different types of injuries can be done by
- Traumatic injury, a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident
- Other injuries from external physical causes, such as radiation injury, burn injury or frostbite
- Injury from toxin or as adverse effect of a pharmaceutical drug
- Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
- Brain injury
- Spinal cord injury
- Nerve injury
- Soft tissue injury
- Sports injury
- Occupational injury
- Accidental injury
There are five injuries to the skin which are
- An abrasion involves the scraping of the skin on a rough surface, usually from either a fall.
- An incision is a sharp cut with very clean edges.
- A laceration, is a cut that involves rough edges. This type of injury might be caused by the tearing of the skin.
- A puncture is the penetration of the skin by a sharp object.
- An avulsion, involves a chunk of the skin being removed.
Acute injuries usually occur suddenly while participating in sports or exercise. They may result in sudden and severe pain, the inability to bear weight on a limb, or inability to move the affected part of the body.
Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur. Injury prevention is a component of safety. There are simple steps that can help in being injury-free during your workout and includes the following
- Warm-up and cool-down. Every workout should begin with a warm-up and end with a cool-down period. A warm-up helps your body get ready for exercise.
- Stretch before and after you workout. This will increase flexibility and reduce risk of muscle soreness and injury.
- Ease into it. When starting an exercise routine or start a new workout program, start slowly.
- Don’t push too hard. As your fitness abilities increase, you will be able to challenge yourself more.
- Cross-train. Vary your workout. Don’t overuse one set of muscles. When you repeat the same muscle movements frequently, it can lead to overuse and repetitive-use injuries such as shin splints and tendinitis.
- Know trouble spots. Tailor workout as per problem areas. For example, a person with arthritis in knees wants to build up strength, don’t allow exercises that actually hurt. And be sure to start out lightly.
- Listen to body. The “no pain, no gain” philosophy can set you up for an injury. You can get fit without feeling pain. Don’t push yourself to the point of pain. If you feel pain, you may be injured. Stop your workout and rest for a day.
- Fuel your body. Drink plenty of water before, during, and after you work out.
- Eat a small meal or snack every two to three hours to keep a steady source of fuel for body. After your workout, eat a healthy carb and protein snack to replenish your energy stores.
- Dress right. Wear the proper gear for workout.
- Rest, take one to two days off a week to rest. Rest days give your body a chance to recover between workouts. That can help prevent injuries.
Injuries can be treated by RICE method and other guidelines for injuries treatment are
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen can be taken to ease pain and inflammation from the injury. Most workout injuries will heal on their own in four weeks or less. If the injury has not improved within a week, or if it gets worse, seek medical care.
- Always use common sense. If concerned about the injury, it’s best to seek medical advice.
- Until fully healed, avoid doing the activity that triggered the injury. And avoid any activity that puts strain on the injured area.
- Staying active may help you heal quicker than if lying on the bed. Try a new workout while injury heals. For example, if sprain in ankle, exercise arms instead.
- After fully recovered from injury — pain-free for more than a week — start back slowly. Don’t try to work out with the same intensity as before injury.
- Rebuilding of muscle strength and endurance may take weeks of regular exercise to regain pre-injury fitness level. Do not push too hard and too fast, as it may injure again.
The RICE method helps to keep injury from getting worse. RICE method is a treatment method for soft tissue injuries which is an acronym for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation and in brief is explained as R: rest the injury, I: ice the injury to lessen swelling, bleeding, and inflammation, C: apply a compression bandage to minimize swelling and E: elevate the injury to reduce swelling
Rest – Rest is a key component of repairing the body. Without rest, continual strain is placed on the affected area, leading to increased inflammation, pain, and possible further injury.
Ice – Ice is excellent at reducing the inflammatory response and the pain from heat generated.
Exceeding the recommended time for ice application may be detrimental, as blood flow will be too reduced to allow nutrient delivery and waste removal.
Compression – Compression aims to reduce the edematous swelling that results from the inflammatory process.
An elastic bandage, rather than a firm plastic bandage (such as zinc-oxide tape) is required.
Elevation – Elevation aims to reduce swelling by increasing venous return of blood to the systemic circulation.
First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury. It is usually performed by non-expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points of preserving life, preventing further harm and promoting recovery.
First Aid not only involves knowledge of first aid to be given to the hurt person, but also making available a first aid kit. A gym’s first aid kit should contain
- Aspirin and Ibuprofin – These are over-the-counter, so generally safe to give out for pain.
- Antibiotic Ointment – Neosporin / Polysporin are good examples – and can be applied topically to cuts and scrapes to reduce the risk of infection.
- Antiseptic – Hydrogen Peroxide, to clean/disinfect wounds. Also keep alcohol wipes.
- Bandages – adhesives, elastics with safety pins, moleskin, gauze pads & adhesive tape
- Eye Wash – solution and eyedrops.
- Instant Cold Packs – to reduce swelling. Wrap in a washcloth and apply to twisted or pulled joints/muscles right away.
- Latex Gloves, Scissors and Tweezers – to aid in using the bandages and removing foreign material from minor wounds.
First Aid Steps for Common Bleeding
- When bleeding comes from the mouth the victim should be laid on his side or with his head tilted forward so that the blood does not drain into the mouth or nose and choke him.
- If possible, lay the victim down and elevate the injury above the level of the heart to slow or stop the flow of blood. Note that this should not be done in the event of a fracture.
- If the wound is on the side of the body, the victim should be lying down with the injury on the upper side.
- Remove the clothing or anything else that obstructs access to the injury so that a clean dressing and bandage can be applied.
- When the bleeding is severe, the bandage needs to be tight at first but when the bleeding subsides the bandage should be cut, but not removed so as to not disturb the wound, and a new loose bandage should be applied over the original dressing.
- If blood soaks through the original bandage, don’t remove it – just add a new bandage over the original, but to a larger area, and apply it more firmly than the first one. You might also need to use more layers.
- Immobilization of the injured part will also help control bleeding.
- Shock should be expected in the event there has been a lot of blood loss or the wound is severe.