Glass is extensively used in building construction such as in doors and windows for architectural features and interior decorations. It is used as a physical barrier between exterior and interior without obstructing visibility. Foamed or cellular glass is used for vapor proof insulation and span form glass fibers are used as acoustic and thermal insulation.
Glass should be free from specks, bubbles, distortions and flaws of every kind and be properly cut to fit rebates so that there is a uniform space of 1.6 mm around glass panes between the edge of glass and rebates.
|S. No||Area of Glass Panes||Thickness of Glass Panes mm||Weight Kg./Sq. m.|
|1.||1 Sq. feet (9 Sq. Decimeter)||2||5.49|
|2.||Exceeding 1Sq. feet up to 4 Sq. feet (37 Sq. decimeter)||2.5||6.40|
|3.||Exceeding 4 Sq. feet up to 6 Sq. feet (55 Sq. decimeter)||3||7.5|
|4.||Exceeding 6 Sq. feet up to 9 sq. feet (84 Sq. decimeter)||4||10|
|5.||Exceeding 9 Sq. feet (84 Sq. Decimeter)||Plate Glass||13.5|
|6.||Door shutters||Toughened glass 12||——-|
- Sheet Glass – It is available in thickness from 2 mm to 6 mm. It is used in mirrors, glazing of windows, framing purposes, strips for flooring and green house glazing etc. The sheet glass is not considered good for aesthetic quality.
- Float Glass – The glass is available in thickness ranging from 2mm to 12 mm and is free from bubbles, knots and scratches etc. It is either clear or tinted and comes in large sizes and thickness. The glass is of uniform thickness without any waves or distortions having excellent optical clarity and aesthetic quality. It is used in door window pans and glazing.
- Tinted Glass – It is heat absorbing glass, which can reduce heat load by 12% and results in energy saving in a building. The tinted glass absorbs 30 to 40 % of solar radiation while clear float glass absorbs 15%. It reduces the quantity of heat flowing into the building and results into energy saving. Tinted glass is available in bronze, dark grey and auto green shades. The glass is used in door and window pans and is glazed to save energy. It is utilized in important and air conditioned buildings.
- Figured Glass – Figured and rolled glass is engraved with artistic patterns on one side of the glass and is produced by roll out methods. It allows light to pass through but blocks visibility and add a decorative touch. These are widely used for houses, general buildings, furniture and interior decoration.
- Wired Glass – It has excellent fire resistant ability. The wire mess used in wired glass is made of steel wires 0.46 to 0.56 mm in diameter. The wire mess holds broken glass pieces from fall. It is used in openings susceptible to fire spreading.
- Heat Reflective Glass – The glass is manufactured by coating clear glass or tinted glass with a metal oxide film which enables glass to reflect light and retains its transparent nature as well i.e. one can see through the glass. The glass is used in outer walls, door and window panes and glazing to saves energy. It is utilized in air conditioned buildings.
- Processed Glass – Processed glass is available as toughened or tempered glass, laminated safety glass or double glazed insulated units in market. All three types of processed glass are custom made and cannot be cut or altered after production. It is used in walls, shops, sky scrapers to resist wind pressure.
- Toughened or Tempered Glass – Toughened glass is made by heating float glass and has three times more resistance to wind pressure than ordinary float glass has. These glasses are widely used as wind screens, windows of automobiles, commercial buildings, curtain walls, shops doors etc. Tempered glasses are used in frameless doors such as entrance door of hotels, show rooms and offices etc.
- Laminate Safety Glass – This glass is made by sandwiching an inter layer of tough elastic film between two sheets of glass and bonding them together using heat and pressure. These glasses are commonly used as wind screen in automobiles, railway coaches, in multi storey buildings where safety is prerequisite, aquariums, built proof glass etc.
- Double Glazed Insulated Glass – This glass enhances aesthetic appearance of building. It is used in curtain walls of double glazed insulated glass units having tinted or heat reflective glass and these are quite common in modern sky scrapers. It reduces overall dead weight of building, allows faster construction and requires less maintenance. Tinted float glass has low visibility.
Visibility of Glass
- Transparent Glass – It is available in different thicknesses and properties. The thickness is available in 3 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, and 10 mm. According to the nature of glass, it is available in toughened glass, laminated and solar reflective glass.
- Translucent Glass – It allows the light but gives limited vision.
- Opaque Glass – This glass does not let the light through but can be used as a hard decorative surface, resistant to scuffing and scratching. It also gives a high glass uniform finish.
Sheet glass pan used in glass paneling of door, window and ventilator shutters shall be flat, transparent and clear as seen by the unaided eye. It shall be free from specks, bubbles, distortion and flaws of every kind. Ordinary quality glass confirming to IS: 2835-1977 is generally used. Due to superior optical clarity of float glass, it is now generally preferred for glazing in windows.
Before proceeding with cleaning, determine whether the glass is clear, tinted or reflective. Surface damage can be more noticeable on reflective glass when compared with clear uncoated glass. If the reflective coated surface is exposed, either externally or internally, special care must be taken when cleaning as scratches can remove the coating and result in visible changes to the light transmittance. Specialist glass such as SGG BIOCLEAN requires particular cleaning methods and the specific instructions for this product must be followed.
Tinted and coated glasses should not be cleaned in direct sunlight, as the glass may be too hot for optimum cleaning. The cleaning solution will dry before effective cleaning has occurred and the dry surface may also promote scratching. Excessive temperature changes of the glass should also be avoided, for example splashing hot water on cold glass or cold water on hot glass.
Care should be taken to ensure that no metal parts of the cleaning equipment make contact with the glass surface and that no abrasive particles are trapped between the glass and cleaning materials.
All water and cleaning solution residue should be dried from window frames, seals and gaskets to avoid any potential deterioration of these materials. If residues are still present on the glass the steps above should be repeated.
Abrasive cleaners, powder based cleaners, scouring pads or other harsh materials should not be used to clean the glass or frame surrounds.
When paint or other construction materials cannot be removed by standard cleaning procedures, a new 25mm razor blade may be used on non-surface treated or non-coated glass surfaces. It should be used only on small spots and scraping carried out in one direction only. Note that this practice can cause a concentration of small hairline scratches that may be visible under certain lighting conditions.
Cleaning the glass
- Use an ammonia-free glass cleaner. Or you may use a premixed vinegar-based cleaning solution (or make your own with one part white vinegar to 10 parts water), and apply to a soft, clean, lint-free microfiber cloth or paper towel. Feel free to be generous with the amount of cleaner you apply, but avoid getting any cleaning solutions on the wood, fiberglass or vinyl frames, as they may discolor the finish.
- Rub from several different directions.
- Rinse with clear water if streaks remain after cleaning.
Spot-cleaning stubborn materials on all glass
To remove any markings from grease, oil, tape, adhesive, crayons or paint, or marks from plastics that may have come in contact with the glass:
- Apply a solvent such as acetone, rubbing alcohol, or mineral spirits to a clean, dry, lint-free microfiber cloth or paper towel.
- Rub on the areas of glass that need spot-cleaning only. Avoid getting any solvents on the wood, fiberglass or vinyl frames, as they may discolor the finish.
- Wipe clean using a clean, dry, lint-free microfiber cloth or paper towel.
- Then clean the glass.
Mirror Cleaning Instructions
The surface of mirrors requires special care when cleaning. It is particularly important to ensure that there is no contact between the mirror backing material and the cleaning solution – particular care should be taken to prevent contact at the edges of the mirror. If the backing material is contacted with the cleaning solutions irreversible degradation of the mirror may result.
The mirror should only be cleaned when cool to touch and should never be cleaned while in direct sunlight. To clean the mirror place a few drops of methylated spirits onto a clean, damp cloth. Wipe the solution over the surface of the mirror. Polish the surface dry with a clean, dry lint free cloth.
The insulating properties of the glass used in energy efficient windows can cause condensation to collect on the glass under certain environmental conditions. Condensation does not occur on all windows, but it is not uncommon at certain times of the year.
Exterior Condensation – Exterior condensation results from the same environmental conditions that cause dew to appear on grass or condensation or frost to appear on a car that is parked outside overnight. It forms when moist air comes into contact with cool surfaces such as glass, when the dew point in the air is higher than the temperature of the glass. This can happen when a cool night follows a warmer day, typically during the spring and fall seasons. Condensation generally does not occur with less energy efficient windows, because heat from the warm interior of the home escapes through the window, keeping the exterior temperature of the glass high enough to prevent condensation.
In contrast, energy efficient windows significantly reduce the interior heat conducted through the glass. This lowers the temperature of the outside glass, which at a certain dew point can result in condensation. Exterior condensation is actually an indication that the insulating glass in your windows is performing as it should, reducing heat loss and lowering utility costs. It is a result of the normal functioning of energy efficient windows.
Interior Condensation – Condensation on interior surfaces of windows and doors occurs because of high humidity and low air exchange inside the home. In many older homes there were gaps in the windows where drafts could be felt and air would flow. This exchange of air, in many cases, was sufficient to prevent condensation from forming. The high-performance windows of today are designed to be air tight to reduce heat loss, which also reduces air flow. Three ways you can fight interior condensation are to reduce moisture sources (humidifiers, plants, aquariums, etc.); increase ventilation (open windows for a few minutes each day, especially during steam-producing activities such as showering, laundry and cooking); and leave closed interior shades up a couple inches above the window sill to allow for air movement between the shades and the window.
Vinyl Finishes, as with all coatings, need regular maintenance to maintain the beauty of the finish and give you years of trouble free performance.
Debris, contaminants such as bird droppings, or sand from a coastal environment should be removed immediately. First, remove any large particles with a soft bristle brush. Then wash the surface using warm water, a mild detergent and a soft absorbent cloth. Never use a dry cloth as hard particles can abrade the finish. Never use abrasive or acidic cleaners – they might cause permanent damage to the frame finish. Periodic or seasonal cleaning using these steps will maintain your premium finish for years to come.