|Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)|
|9, Bahadurshah Zafar Marg, Manak Bhawan, New Delhi 110002|
Fax 2323 4062 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
|609 Balarama, 6th floor, 3C Bandra Kurla Complex , Bandra (E), Mumbai 400 051||Email email@example.com|
|Det Norske Veritas (DNV)|
|203 Savitri Sadan -1, 11 Preet Vihar, Community Centre, New Delhi 110092||Email firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Indian Register Quality Systems (IRQS)|
|52A, Adi Sankaracharya Marg, OppPowaiLake, Powai, Mumbai – 400 072|
S-241, Greater Kailash – 1, New Delhi 110048
|Tel 022 22154128|
|Lloyd’s Register Industrial Services (India) Ltd (LRQA)|
|401/2 Tulsiani Chambers, Nariman Point, Mumbai 400021||Tel 2830612,2854680|
|NQA Quality Systems Registrar Ltd|
|#15/1, 8th Main, Hampi Nagar (RPC Layout)|
Behind Govt. Central Library,
Vijayanagar II Stage Bangalore,Karnataka 560040 .
|SGS India Ltd (SGS)|
|SGS House, 4B Adi Shankaracharya Marg, Vikroli (W), Mumbai 400 083||Tel 022 25798421|
|Standardization, Testing & Quality Control (STQC)|
|Department of Information Technology,|
6 CGO Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003
|Tel 011 24363083|
|TUV (India) Pvt Ltd|
|241, Hindustan Kohinoor Industrial Complex, Opp MTNL, LBS Marg, Vikroli (E), Mumbai 400 083||Tel 25771454/1324|
The ISO 9000 standards relate to quality management systems and are designed to help organizations ensure they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders. The standards are published by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization and available through National standards bodies.
ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems, including the eight management principles on which the family of standards is based. ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard have to meet.
In recent times, service sector has been the fastest growing sector in the world. While product quality is easier to control with rigorous tests, services are usually produced and consumed at the same time, and service deficiencies cannot be eliminated before delivery due to the personalized and subject nature of services. In addition, service standards are difficult to establish due to subjective measurements, and customers have their own expectations about what service quality is or should be.
For export of services, the usual inquiries from the buyer relate to assurance of continuity of supply and consistency of quality. In addition, services are usually labour intensive, involving complex cross functional integration of several supporting systems.
Economic studies have discovered that meeting quality, delivery and cost requirements is the only long term method for success. Export promotion is vitally linked to economic development and unless a country exports quality goods and services meeting customer requirements, there can be no steady economic growth. No enterprise can afford to compromise on quality if it is to establish a good image for its products and for its country. A single consignment of inferior quality can tarnish the good name of the exporter and the country as a whole.
Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects
- Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records
- Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications
- Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit and quality relationships
Containerization is a system of freight transport based on a range of steel inter-modal containers (also ‘shipping containers’, ‘ISO containers’ etc). Containers are built to agreed upon standard dimensions and can be loaded and unloaded, stacked and transported efficiently over long distances, often by container ship, rail and semi trailer trucks without being opened. The system developed after WWII and led to greatly reduced transport costs and supported a vast increase in international trade.
The container, as the meaning implies, is the equipment used to store and carry goods. In shipping, the term was used to refer to any type of box used to carry cargo.
We find that basically transport is possible through land, air or water and the various modes of transport can be broadly divided into three categories: Land transport, Water transport and Air transport.
Part of Land transport, roads are the means that connect one place to another on the surface of the land.
Transportation of goods on rail lines through trains is called rail transport. It occupies an important place in land transport system of our country and is the most dependable mode of transport to carry goods over a long distance.
In modern times, pipelines are used for various purposes. Petroleum and natural gas are also transported from one place to another through pipelines. This is the most convenient as well as economical mode of transport for petroleum as well as natural gas in comparison to road and rail transport, provided the volume to be transported is large. But the cost of installation and maintenance requires large capital investment. Pipelines can be the target of vandalism, sabotage, or even terrorist attacks. In war, pipelines are often the target of military attacks, as destruction of pipelines can seriously disrupt enemy logistics.
Water transport refers to movement of goods on waterways by using various means like boats, steamers, launches, ships, etc. With the help of these means, goods are carried to different places, both within as well as outside the country. Within the country, rivers and canals facilitate the movement of boats, launches, etc.
This is the fastest mode of transport. It carries goods through airways by using different aircrafts. It generally carries goods that are less bulky or of high value. In hilly and mountainous areas where other mode of transport is not accessible, air transport is an important as well as convenient mode.
International air transport is used for carrying goods between different countries. Air transport is carried out in fixed air routes, which connect almost all the countries.
Following are the some of the highlights of Foreign Trade Policy 2009-2014
Higher Support for Market and Product Diversification
- Incentive schemes under Chapter 3 have been expanded by way of addition of new products and markets.
- 26 new markets have been added under Focus Market Scheme. These include 16 new markets in Latin America and 10 in Asia-Oceania.
- The incentive available under Focus Market Scheme (FMS) has been increased to 3% from 2.5%
- The incentive available under Focus Product Scheme (FPS) has been increased to 2% from 1.25%
To aid technological upgradation of our export sector, EPCG Scheme at Zero Duty has been introduced. This Scheme will be available for engineering & electronic products, basic chemicals & pharmaceuticals, apparels & textiles, plastics, handicrafts, chemicals & allied products and leather & leather products (subject to exclusions of current beneficiaries under Technological Upgradation www.allindiantaxes.com10Fund Schemes (TUFS), administered by Ministry of Textiles and beneficiaries of Status Holder Incentive Scheme in that particular year).
EPCG Scheme Relaxations
- To increase the life of existing plant and machinery, export obligation on import of spares, moulds etc. under EPCG Scheme has been reduced to 50% of the normal specific export obligation.
- Taking into account the decline in exports, the facility of Re-fixation of Annual Average Export Obligation for a particular financial year in which there is decline in exports from the country, has been extended for the 5 year Policy period 2009-14.
The Indian Customs EDI System (ICES) is now operational at 111 major customs locations handling nearly 98% of India’s International trade in terms of import and export consignments.
Following are the major objectives of ICES:
- Respond more quickly to the needs of the trade
- Computerization of customs related functions including import/export, general manifest control, ex-bond clearance of warehoused goods, goods imported against export promotion schemes, monitoring of export promotion schemes.
- Reduce interaction of the trade with Government agencies
- Provide retrieval of information from other custom locations to have uniformity in assessment and valuation
- Provide management information system for policy making and its effective revenue and
pendency monitoring and
- Provide quick and correct information on import/export statistics to Director General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics