Cardio Vascular Exercise

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A treadmill or tread wheel is a device for walking or running while staying in the same place. The machine provides a moving platform with a wide conveyor belt driven by an electric motor. The belt moves to the rear requiring the user to walk or run at a speed matching that of the belt. The rate at which the belt moves is the rate of walking or running. Thus, the speed of running may be controlled and measured.

20-Minute Treadmill Workouts

Two 20-minute treadmill workouts, focusing on running and the second for climbing with frequent changes in the treadmill’s incline are listed. The range of speeds, depending on fitness level.

Running Workout

Time Speed Incline 
1 min. 6.5 mph/5.5 mph/4.5 mph 0%
1 min. 7.0 mph/6.0 mph/5.0 mph 0%
1 min. 7.0 mph/6.0 mph/5.0 mph 3%
1 min. 7.5 mph/6.5 mph/5.5 mph 0%
1 min. 8.0 mph/7.0 mph 6.0 mph 0%
2 min. 9.0 mph/7.5 mph/6.5 mph 0%
1 min. 6.5 mph/5.5 mph/4.0 mph 6%
1 min. 7.0 mph/6.0 mph/4.5 mph 0%
45 sec. 10.0 mph/9.0 mph/6.0 mph 0%

Follow by resistance training (weights, bands, or calisthenics) on the floor. Keep moving with exercises such as squats and lunges.

Climbing Workout

Time Speed Incline 
1 min. 4.0 mph/4.0 mph/4.0 mph 9%
1 min. 4.0 mph/4.0 mph/3.5 mph 12%
2 min. 4.0 mph/3.5 mph/3.0 mph 15%
1 min. 7.0 mph/6.0 mph/4.5 mph 0%
1 min. 5.5 mph/5.0 mph/4.5 mph 0%
1 min. 5.5 mph/5.0 mph/4.5 mph 3%
2 min. 4.0 mph/3.5 mph/3.0 mph 15%
1 min. 4.0 mph/4.0 mph/4.0 mph 9%

Follow by resistance training (weights, bands, or calisthenics) on the floor. Keep moving with exercises such as squats and lunges.

Cross trainer

An elliptical trainer or cross-trainer (also called an X-trainer) is a stationary exercise machine used to simulate stair climbing, walking, or running without causing excessive pressure to the joints, hence decreasing the risk of impact injuries. Most elliptical trainers work the user’s upper and lower body. There are three types of elliptical trainers, categorized by the motor or “drive” location. The oldest elliptical design is the “rear-drive” type. The “front-drive” elliptical was the second generation design. The latest design technology is the “center-drive”.

Elliptical cross trainers have various pre-programmed options eg. Cardio, Hill, Random, Reverse, etc. You can use the manual setting to control your workout intensity (varying resistance and speed) for yourself or just do a “steady-state” workout (at a constant speed and resistance). Some have heart rate monitors to assist you in keeping within your target heart rate zone.

A sample steady-state cross trainer gym workout provided below is of moderate intensity and is suitable for most individuals already keeping fit. Monitor your heart rate to ensure you’re training within your suggested heart rate zone, decrease or increase difficulty (pace or level) accordingly.


Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for health. Stationary bicycle is used by people seeking to improve their fitness and cardiovascular health.


Skipping will help improve cardio-respiratory (heart and lungs) fitness, flexibility, and coordination. As a high-impact exercise skipping is great for building bones and a good exercise to trim hips, thighs, and backsides. Skipping is a strenuous exercise so start slowly. Try skipping for 20-30 seconds, marching on the spot for 30 seconds, repeat. As your fitness improves you can increase the time you skip for. Different types of skipping are

  • Basic jump or easy jump – This is where both feet are slightly apart and jump at the same time over the rope.
  • Alternate foot jump (speed step) – This style consists of using alternate feet to jump off the ground.
  • Criss-cross – This method is similar to the basic jump with the only difference being that while jumping, the left-hand goes to the right part of the body and vice versa for the right hand, with arms crossing in front of the body.
  • Side Swing – This is a basic technique where the rope passes the side of the skipper’s body, without jumping it.
  • EB(front-back cross) – This is similar to the crisscross except one arm crosses behind the back.

A simple skipping workout

  • Start off by jumping rope normally.
  • After a few minutes, move your feet forward and backward 3 or 4 inches with each jump.
  • Repeat for five minutes.
  • Return back to regular jump roping.
  • Then, move your feet left and right 3 or 4 inches with each jump.
  • Repeat for another five minutes.
  • Continue to perform the set for 30 minutes.

Weight Loss Exercise


The crunch is one of the most common abdominal exercises. A crunch begins with lying face up on the floor with knees bent. The movement begins by curling the shoulders towards the pelvis. The hands can be behind or beside the neck or crossed over the chest. Injury can be caused by pushing against the head or neck with hands. Various types of crunches are

  • Reverse crunch is done with upper back on the floor and lifting the hips up instead.
  • Twisting crunch is done by lifting one shoulder at a time.
  • The Thai crunch is performed by hitting the stomach after full contraction. This variation is used by Muay Thai fighters to condition the core to take hits from punches or knees.
  • The cable crunch is performed while kneeling upright by curling the body to pull down on a cable machine. The hips are kept motionless.

The steps involved are

Lie on your back on the floor. Using a mat or carpeted surface is more comfortable. For more resistance, you can try these on a declined bench.

  • Bend your knees.
  • Cross your arms in front of your chest.
  • For increased resistance, you can hold weight on your chest or behind your head.
  • Curl your back to lift your shoulders towards the ceiling (not towards your knees) using strictly your abdominal muscles.

It is very important not to lift your entire back off the floor, as this can cause back strain, and the extended movement does not help you develop six pack abs any faster.

Weight Management

Glycemic Foods

The glycemic index, (GI) provides a measure of how quickly blood sugar levels (i.e. levels of glucose in the blood) rise after eating a particular type of food. The effects that different foods have on blood sugar levels vary considerably. The glycemic index estimates how much each gram of available carbohydrate (total carbohydrate minus fiber) in a food raises a person’s blood glucose level following consumption of the food, relative to consumption of pure glucose. Glucose has a glycemic index of 100. A low-GI food will release glucose more slowly and steadily, which leads to more suitable postprandial (after meal) blood glucose readings. A high-GI food causes a more rapid rise in blood glucose levels and is suitable for energy recovery after exercise.

Classification GI range Examples
Low GI 55 or less beans (white, black, pink, kidney, lentil, soy, almond, peanut, walnut, chickpea); small seeds (sunflower, flax, pumpkin, poppy, sesame); most whole intact grains (durum/spelt/kamut wheat, millet, oat, rye, rice, barley); most vegetables, most sweet fruits (peaches, strawberries, mangos); tagatose; fructose
Medium GI 56–69 not intact whole wheat or enriched wheat, pita bread, basmati rice, unpeeled boiled potato, grape juice, raisins, prunes, pumpernickel bread, cranberry juice, regular ice cream, sucrose, banana
High GI 70 and above white bread (only wheat endosperm), most white rice (only rice endosperm), corn flakes, extruded breakfast cereals, glucose, maltose, maltodextrins, potato, pretzels, parsnip




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