Exploratory Testing

Exploratory testing is an approach to software testing that is concisely described as simultaneous learning, test design and test execution.

Q.1 Differentiate between Scripted and Exploratory Testing.
Firstly, Scripted Testing is directed from requirements and exploratory testing is directed from requirements and exploring during testing. Secondly, Scripted testing is confirmation of testing with the requirements and exploratory testing refers to the investigation of a system or application. Thirdly, scripted testing involves confirmed testing and exploratory testing involves Investigation. Lastly, in scripted testing, the script is in control, and in exploratory testing, the tester's mind is in control
Q.2 What is the process for performing Exploratory Testing?
Firstly, create a Bug Taxonomy. Secondly, use Test Charter for suggesting what to test, how it can be tested, and what needs to be looked at. However, test ideas are the starting point of exploration testing. Thirdly, use Time Box methods. There should not be any interrupted time in those 90 minutes sessions and the timebox can be extended or reduced by 45 minutes. Further, this session encourages testers to react to the response from the system and prepare for the correct outcome Then, review Results by evaluating the defects, learning from the testing, and analysis of coverage areas. Lastly, compare the results with the charter and check whether any additional testing is needed.
Q.3 What are the challenges of Exploratory Testing?
Some of the challenges include: Firstly, learning to use the application or software system. Secondly, determining whether tools need to be used. Then, reporting the test results. Next, documentation of all events during execution. Lastly, don't know when to stop the testing as exploratory testing has definite test cases to execute.
Q.4 Define use case testing.
For identifying and executing the functional requirement of an application from start to finish use case. And, the method used to do this is known as Use Case Testing.
Q.5 Differentiate between STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle).
SDLC deals with the development/coding of the software while STLC deals with validation and verification of the software.
Q.6 What do you understand about the traceability matrix?
The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. And, this document is known as a traceability matrix.
Q.7 Define equivalence partitioning testing.
This refers to a software testing technique that divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method, it lowers the time required for software testing.
Q.8 Define white box testing and name its types.
The white box testing technique involves the selection of test cases depending on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage, etc.) of a component or system. This is also called Code-Based testing or Structural testing. However, the types of white box testing are Statement Coverage Decision Coverage
Q.9 What is verified in the white box testing?
In white-box testing, there is verification of: Security holes in the code Incomplete or broken paths in the code The flow of structure according to the document specification Expected outputs All conditional loops in the code to check the complete functionality of the application
Q.10 Define black box testing and its techniques.
Black box testing refers to a software testing method that is used for testing the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done for checking the functionality of an application. However, the black box testing techniques are: Equivalence Partitioning Boundary value analysis Cause-effect graphing
Q.11 Define static and dynamic testing.
During the Static testing method, the code is not executed, and it is performed using the software documentation. And, in dynamic testing, the code is required to be in an executable form.
Q.12 What do you understand about verification and validation?
Verification is a process of evaluating software at the development phase. It helps you to decide whether the product of a given application satisfies the specified requirements. Whereas, validation is the process of evaluating software after the development process and checking whether it meets the customer requirements.
Q.13 Define the different test levels.
There are four types of test levels: Unit/component/program/module testing Integration testing System testing Acceptance testing
Q.14 Define UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing.
System testing is for finding defects when the system undergoes testing as a whole and it is also known as end-to-end testing. In such type of testing, the application suffers from beginning till the end. And, UAT stands for User Acceptance Testing (UAT) that involves running a product through a series of specific tests which determine whether the product will meet the needs of its users.
Q.15 What is Data-Driven Testing and Retesting?
Retesting refers to the process of checking bugs that are actioned by the development team to verify that they are fixed. And in Data-Driven Testing, the application is tested with multiple test data. Here, the application is tested with a different set of values.
Q.16 Explain the points for resolving issues while testing.
Firstly, Record. Log and handle any problems that occurred. Then, Report. Report the issues to a higher-level manager Lastly, Control. Specify the issue management process
Q.17 Define the following: test scenarios, test cases, and test script?
A Test Scenario refers to any functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility. Test Cases refer to a document that contains the steps that have to be executed; it has been planned earlier. Test Script is written in a programming language and it's a short program used for testing part of the functionality of the software system.
Q.18 What do you know about a Latent defect?
Latent defect refers to an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met.
Q.19 What is the role of the phantom software testing tool?
Phantom can be considered as freeware that is used for windows GUI automation scripting language. It allows us to take control of windows and functions automatically. It can simulate any combination of keystrokes and mouse clicks as well as menus, lists, and more.
Q.20 Define Test Deliverables.
Test Deliverables refer to a set of documents, tools, and other components that have to be developed and maintained in support of testing. Further, there are different test deliverables at every phase of the software development lifecycle: Before Testing During Testing After the Testing
Q.21 Define mutation testing.
Mutation testing is a method for identifying if a set of test data or test cases is useful by intentionally introducing various code changes (bugs) and retesting with original test data/ cases to determine if the bugs are detected.
Q.22 Explain the term ‘Functional testing’.
A black box testing method in which the functionality of an application is tested for creating the desired output by providing certain input is called ‘Functional testing’. However, the role of functional testing is not only to validate the behavior of the application as per the requirement document specification but is also to verify whether the application is ready to be released into the live environment or not.
Q.23 Differentiate between Functional testing and Non-Functional testing.
Functional testing determines the system behavior as per the client’s functional requirements. Whereas Non-functional testing is the process to determine the system performance as per client expectations. Secondly, Functional testing is performed first with the help of Manual and Automation testing tools. And, Non-functional testing is performed after functional testing with the effective tools required. Thirdly, it is easy to perform manual testing as client requirements are the input in functional testing. And for NonFunctional Testing, it is difficult to perform manual testing as scalability, reliability, speed and other performance parameters are input.
Q.24 Define the term ‘Build’ and ‘Release’?
Build refers to an executable file that is a part of an application handed over to a tester to test the implemented functionality of the application along with some bug fixes. The build can be rejected by the testing team if it does not pass the critical checklist which contains the major functionality of the application. And, release refers to the software application which is no longer in the testing phase and after completion of testing and development, the application is handed over to the client.
Q.25 What do you understand about Bug cycle?
The bug is an unwanted error, flaw, mistake, etc that has taken place within the application and prevents it from delivering the desired output. When any defect or bug is encountered in an application while testing, then from logging a defect till its resolution, a bug moves through a definite life cycle known as Bug Lifecycle.
Q.26 Name some advantages of data-driven testing.
Some advantages of data-driven testing are: Reusability. Repeatability. Test data separation from test logic. The number of test cases is reduced.
Q.27 Define Automation testing.
Automation testing can be defined as a testing methodology where an automation tool is used for executing the test cases suite in order to increase test coverage as well as speed to test execution. This testing does not require any human intervention as it executes pre-scripted tests and is capable of reporting and comparing outcomes with previous test runs.
Q.28 Name some of the automation testing tools.
Some automation testing tools are: Selenium Tellurium Watir SoapUI
Q.29 What do you understand about Stress Testing and Load testing?
Stress Testing is a form of performance testing where the application is bound to go through exertion or stress that is an execution of the application above the threshold of the break for determining the point where the application crashes. This condition usually arises when there are too many users and too much data. Whereas Load Testing is a form of performance testing where the application is executed above various load levels for monitoring the peak performance of the server, response time, server throughput, etc. Via the load testing process stability, performance, and integrity of the application are determined under concurrent system load.
Q.30 What is Volume testing?
Volume testing can be defined as a type of performance testing that determines the performance levels of the server throughput and response time when concurrent users, as well as large data load from the database, are put onto the system/application under tests.
Q.31 What is the process of removing the product risk in the project?
Firstly, investigate the specification documents. Secondly, have discussions about the project with all stakeholders including the developer. Lastly, explore and review the website as a real user.
Q.32 What are the common risk for a project failure?
The common risk that leads towards project failure are: Not having enough human resource Testing Environment may not be set up properly Budget issues Time Limitations
Q.33 Define stubs and drivers in manual testing.
In incremental testing, there are two approaches bottom-up and the top-down approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing and stub is used for a top-down approach. In order to test the main module, the stub is used, which is a dummy code or program.
Q.34 Define LCSAJ.
LCSAJ stands for linear code sequence and jumps that consists of the three items: Firstly, beginning of the linear sequence of executable statements Secondly, the ending of the linear sequence Lastly, the target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence
Q.35 What is N+1 testing?
N+1 is referred to as the variation of regression testing. In this technique, the testing is performed in multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle 'N' are resolved and re-tested in test cycle N+1. The cycle is repeated unless there are no errors found.
Q.36 Why do we do exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is needed to test the software with an inquisitive bent of mind by the tester instead of scripted testing. It involves investigation, discovery, and learning.

Exploratory testers have the freedom to develop test cases as per their understanding of the system thus, test cases are unique, creative and more attuned to the customer’s need.

Exploratory testing can be applied to any type of testing, it is a different way to develop test cases.

Q.37 What is adhoc testing and exploratory testing?

Adhoc testing is similar to exploratory testing but differs as adhoc testing involves first complete learning about the software and then develops test cases whereas in exploratory testing both learning is followed by test case for the learning gained.

Q.38 Can exploratory testing be automated?

Exploratory testing cannot be automated as it involves learning about the software to test and test case development on the learning. Automation can help in specific part of exploratory testing like documentation or intermediate processing of data if needed for test case development, can be automated.

Q.39 What is sanity and smoke testing?

Sanity and smoke testing are types of software testing which are applied on software build but in different stage of software development.

Sanity testing is done at later stage of software development, when the software build is stable and checks software for new features being added, and bugs have been resolved.

Smoke testing is done in earlier stages of software development when the software build has many errors, to detect the correct working of crucial functionality.

Q.40 Who does exploratory testing?

Exploratory testing is done by software testers who can quickly learn about a system and creatively develop test cases to check the learning about the software under test.

Exploratory testers should be flexible, inquisitive and expert in developing test cases as test cases are not made in advance.

Q.41 What is exploratory system?

Exploratory system is about exploring the system or getting to know and learn about the system. This system has a research-based focus with a new experimental approach. Exploratory system involves developing various potential scenarios and then selecting the most optimum one

Q.42 What is Agile methodology in testing?

Agile methodology in testing means testing as per Agile principles which involves continuous testing iteratively, as per continuous development or delivery of software during software development life cycle. The continuous testing is done in each iteration so as to reach customer requirement quickly. Testing and development takes place simultaneously.

Q.43 What is Exploratory Testing in Agile?

Exploratory Testing in Agile is aligned to Agile principle, of interactions over processes and tools. Exploratory Testing involves concurrent learning of the system under test, execution and design of test cases. Exploratory Testing makes the tester in the focus.

Q.44 When Adhoc testing is performed?

Adhoc testing is performed as per immediate need of testing the software and there is no prior plan to conduct the said test on the system. Adhoc testing is usually performed after formal tests have been done on the software.

Q.45 What is exploratory testing with example?

Exploratory testing with example will be developing test cases after knowing how the product serves the target users’ basic needs and developing test cases on that learning.

Q.46 What does exploratory testing mean?

Exploratory testing is a different way to develop test cases. Exploratory testing can be applied to any type of testing.  Exploratory Testing involves parallel learning of the system under test, execution and design of test cases.

Q.47 What are the different types of testing?

The different types of testing are as per classification criteria like test levels ( unit/integration) testing to be done on (UI/function) or what to test (load test / stress test/etc)

Q.48 What is RTM in testing?

RTM in testing refers to Requirement Traceability Matrix. RTM is a matrix having a list of all requirements of the end user with test cases along with their status.

RTM helps in easily tracing requirements to their defect free inclusion or any defect being linked to it.

Q.49 What is test harness in manual testing?

Test harness in manual testing refers to test process / tool /configuration, which helps in test case execution.  Test harness in manual testing provides the facility to vary conditions so as to do exhaustive tests. Test harness helps in automating the testing process thus, easing the testing process.

Q.50 What is black box testing with example?

Black box testing with example is conducting tests for system’s functionality without focusing on the path taken for providing that functionality. Black box testing focus on system’s input and output only.

Q.51 Is there any certification for exploratory testing?

Yes, exploratory testing certification is at link - https://www.vskills.in/certification/testing/exploratory-testing-certification


Vskills offers following deliverables

-          Online video based, e-learning LMS

-          Hard copy to candidates residing in India

-          Practice tests for assessing your knowledge

-          Government certification

-          Alumni strength already in reputed software companies like Accenture, Cognizant, IBM, TCS, etc

Q.52 Is there any good link to practice my exploratory testing skills?

Yes, link to practice exploratory testing skills is - https://www.vskills.in/practice/exploratory-testing-questions

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