World Class Manufacturing (WCM)

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Q.1 How would you define World class manufacturing?
WCM is a collection of concepts known as world-class manufacturing establishes a benchmark for production and manufacturing that other organizations can follow.
Q.2 Name some techniques of WCM.
  • Make to order
  • Streamlined Flow
  • Smaller lot sizes
  • Collection of parts
  • Doing it right-first-time
  • Cellular or group manufacturing
  • Total preventive maintenance
  • Quick replacement
  • Zero Defects
  • Just in Time
  • Increased consistency
  • Higher employee involvement
  • Cross Functional Teams
  • Multi-Skilled employees
  • Visual Signaling
  • Statistical process control
Q.3 What are World Class Companies?
World-class companies are defined as those who can compete through manufacturing by developing multiple capabilities all at once. Multiple improvements within a value chain of suppliers add up, and should ultimately provide a cumulative competitive advantage to the OEM
Q.4 Although world-class manufacturers use rigorous control mechanisms, there are five actions that can be taken to make the system more efficient. Explain them to me.
  • Reduced set-up and tuning time: It's critical for businesses to be able to save time when it comes to setting up machines and adjusting them before they go into production.
  • Cellular Manufacturing: It's critical that manufacturing processes are split into categories based on their nature, with related operations grouped together.
  • Reduce WIP material: Manufacturing companies have a natural tendency to keep large amounts of WIP material on hand. WIP increases costs, while WIP decreases attention on manufacturing and allows for faster circulation of goods.
  • Delay product mutation: To reach a higher level of personalization, several alterations to the final product are done. It is critical, however, that mutations suggested during the design stage be implemented only after the final operation.
  • Remove the unimportant many and concentrate on the critical few: It is critical for businesses to concentrate on producing items that are in line with expected demand in order to meet client expectations.
Q.5 What are the principles of WCM?

World-class manufacturing is guided by three main ideas.

  • Implementing just-in-time and lean management reduces wastage, lowering costs.
  • Total quality management reduces defects and develops a zero-tolerance attitude toward them.
  • Total preventative maintenance is used to prevent production from being halted due to mechanical breakdown.
Q.6 Explain the aspects of WCM.

The following are the main characteristics of world-class manufacturing:

  • Area of industrial culture
  • Area of the market/client
  • Area of product development
  • Area of operations
  • Area of E-Performance
Q.7 What are characteristic of world class organization?
  • Customer Service Quality
  • Control and Assurance Innovation
  • Political Lobbying
Q.8 How has WCM evolve?
In recent years, the WCM market has undergone substantial transformations. Businesses moved away from contributing content to websites without a defined aim in mind to exploiting content as a cash generator. The way individuals access and consume material, services, and digital experiences has influenced the evolution of WCM. WCM requirements in today's world are more dynamic, connected, and interactive. Content can no longer be attached to a certain channel due to the development of digital marketing and the proliferation of channels such as mobile, email, social, digital kiosks/displays, wearable's, and messaging platforms. The emphasis has evolved away from compartmentalized WCM platforms and toward providing an end-to-end digital experience that includes analytics, personalization, and e-Commerce.
Q.9 What are the Practices of WCM?
World class manufacturing practices basically includes total quality management, total productive maintenance, 5S, supply chain management, lean manufacturing, just in time manufacturing.
Q.10 Explain quality in World-Class Manufacturing.
World Class Manufacturing (WCM) is a cutting-edge concept used by business leaders around the world. One of the nine pillars in this notion is directly tied to quality, while the other eight are indirectly related to it. As a result, it's critical to look at the connections between this concept and the concept of quality model.
Q.11 What is Deming's Approach?
When it came to process analysis and improvement, Deming advocated for the Plan-Do-Check-Act method. Emphasize training and education so that everyone can perform better at their employment. Use kaizen as a model to cut waste and boost efficiency, effectiveness, and safety.
Q.12 Explain Shingo’s Approach.
The Shingo Guiding Principles serve as the foundation for establishing a long-term corporate excellence culture. The principles are split into three dimensions in the Guiding Principles diamond: Cultural Enablers, Continuous Improvement, and Enterprise Alignment.
Q.13 What is Frequency Distributions?
A frequency distribution is a graphical or tabular representation that shows the number of observations within a specified interval. The interval size is determined by the data being examined and the analyst's objectives. The intervals must be mutually exclusive as well as comprehensive. In most cases, frequency distributions are utilized in a statistical setting. In general, the charting of a normal distribution is connected with frequency distribution.
Q.14 Explain Central Limit Theorem.
The central limit theorem (CLT) asserts that as the sample size grows higher, the sample distribution approaches a normal distribution (commonly known as a "bell curve"), provided that all samples are equivalent in size and regardless of the population distribution shape. CLT is a statistical theory that states that given a sufficiently enough sample size from a population with a finite level of variance, the mean of all samples from the same population will be about equal to the population mean. Furthermore, all of the samples will have a roughly normal distribution.
Q.15 Define Probability.
Probability is a discipline of mathematics concerned with numerical explanations of the likelihood of an event occurring or the truth of a claim. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, with 0 indicating the event's impossibility and 1 indicating certainty.
Q.16 What is Control Chart?
Control charts, also known as Shewhart charts or process-behavior charts, are statistical process control tools that are used to establish if a manufacturing or business process is under control. Control charts are more accurately described as the graphical device for Statistical Process Monitoring.
Q.17 Explain Toyota Production System.
The Toyota Production System (TPS) is a Toyota-developed integrated socio-technical system that includes its management philosophy and practices. The TPS is a management system for vehicle manufacturers that coordinates manufacturing and logistics, as well as interactions with suppliers and customers.
Q.18 What is the Lean manufacturing?
Lean manufacturing is a methodology for improving processes based on the well-known Toyota Production System (TPS). The elimination of waste from a value stream is the core focus of lean manufacturing. In this case, waste is defined as anything that consumes resources while providing no value to the client. When waste is removed from a value stream, it is possible to produce only the proper material, in the quantity needed by the client, at the precise right moment. As a result, the process is more efficient, and the product is delivered to the consumer faster. The parts of a value stream that bring value to the consumer usually make up a tiny percentage of the total.
Q.19 Define Mudas.
Mura means "overload" or "burden." It refers to working something over its capability, whether it's factory equipment or your workforce. Working anything above its capacity might result in a gradual decrease in output or possibly a complete shutdown. This can be disastrous depending on your industry and the nature of the systems in place.
Q.20 What is Value Stream Mapping?
The value stream mapping method allows you to visualize all of the processes in your work process in great detail. It is a diagram that depicts the flow of goods from the supplier to the client within your company. A software company, for example, provides value to its customers in the form of software solutions and all features contained within.
Q.21 Explain 5S in WCM.
The 5S system is a lean manufacturing technology that reduces waste and increases workplace productivity.
Q.22 What is Kaizen?
Kaizen is a Japanese corporate philosophy involving practices that continuously improve operations and involve all personnel. It is a Japanese term that means "change for the better" or "continuous improvement." Kaizen views productivity development as a thorough and steady process. Kaizen is a broad concept that incorporates a variety of principles. It entails building a team attitude, refining daily operations, assuring employee involvement, and making a job more satisfying, less stressful, and safer.
Q.23 Explain Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED).
SMED (Single-Minute Exchange of Dies) is a technique that drastically reduces the time it takes to replace out equipment. The SMED system's goal is to make as many changeover procedures as possible "external" (done while the equipment is running), while simplifying and streamlining the rest.
Q.24 What is Kanban Card System?
A Kanban card is a depiction of a work item in visual form. It literally translates to "visual (kan) card" in Japanese (ban). It's an important part of the Kanban system because it indicates work that's been requested or is already underway.
Q.25 What is Total Productive Maintenance?
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a method of equipment maintenance that attempts to improve productivity, efficiency, and safety in order to produce a perfect manufacturing process. Zero unplanned failures, zero product defects, and zero accidents are the three aims of TPM. These objectives are furthered by applying eight "pillars" aimed at increasing productivity by ensuring reliability in the manufacturing process. A emphasis on providing a safe work environment through a planned workplace safety improvement strategy is one of these pillars. Employees are involved in developing workplace safety standards and maintaining a safe work environment as part of this process.
Q.26 Explain Strategic Planning Issues for WCM.
Strategic planning is the process of developing specific business plans, putting them into action, and analyzing the results in terms of a company's overarching long-term goals or wants. It's a notion that focuses on a company's strategic goals being met through integrating several departments (such as accounting and finance, marketing, and human resources). The terms "strategic planning" and "strategic management" are almost interchangeable.
Q.27 What are the Strategic Barriers for IT?
Market structure barriers are likely to drive enterprises to respond strategically. In other words, if firms believe that market barriers are insufficient to deter market entry, they might take tactical efforts to prevent new competitors from entering the market and safeguard their market position. As illustrated in some of the examples below, such behaviors might raise ethical and legal concerns.
Q.28 What are the Shingo Guiding Principles?
Respect Every Individual Lead with Humility Seek Perfection Embrace Scientific Thinking Focus on Process Assure Quality at the Source Improve Flow & Pull Think Systemically Create Constancy of Purpose Create Value for the Customer
Q.29 Explain Frequency Distribution.
A frequency distribution is a statistical tool that offers a visual depiction of the distribution of data within a test. Frequency distribution is frequently used by analysts to depict or interpret the data obtained in a sample. Children's height, for example, can be divided into numerous groups or ranges. When 50 children's heights are measured, some are tall and some are small, but the medium range is likely to have a larger frequency or concentration. The most critical aspects of data collection are that the intervals employed do not overlap and that all possible observations are included.
Q.30 What is performance gap?
A performance gap is the difference between the existing situation's performance and the desired situation's performance. It's the difference between what the target person or team does and what the firm anticipates.
Q.31 What are the benefits of value stream mapping?
You can identify wasteful actions with the help of VSM. VSM gives you a clear picture of the work process, including where value-adding and non-value-adding stages are formed. Visualizing how long it takes for work items to pass through them is also a valuable exercise. VSM emphasizes the present workflow while focusing on future enhancements.
Q.32 What are the steps of 5S?
Since 5S was developed in Japan and the original "S" phrases were written in Japanese, English translations for each of the five steps may differ. However, the fundamental concepts and linkages between them are simple to grasp. Name of the step Explanation of the Japanese phrase 1. Sort Seiri (tidiness) Remove any items that aren't needed from each location. 2. Seiton (orderliness) Organize and identify storage for efficient use. 3. Clean and inspect each area on a regular basis to maintain the Shine Seiso (cleanliness). 4. Seiketsu (standardisation) should be standardised, and 5S should be incorporated into standard operating procedures. 5. Maintain Shitsuke (discipline) through assigning responsibilities, keeping track of progress, and repeating the cycle.
Q.33 What are the requirements for Kaizen?
Teamwork, personal discipline, better morale, quality, and suggestions for improvement are the five main elements of traditional Japanese kaizen ideas. Three important effects result from these five tenets: waste removal (also known as economic efficiency), excellent housekeeping, and standardisation. Kaizen should, in theory, become so established in a company's culture that it becomes second nature to personnel. The kaizen philosophy asserts that there is no such thing as perfection and that everything can be improved. People must continuously seek to adapt and innovate.
Q.34 What are the steps to Implement SMED?
Identify The Process Identify Elements Separate External Elements Convert Internal to External Streamline
Q.35 Give an example of SMED.
During professional motor racing, one real-life example of SMED can be witnessed. For race car drivers, the quickness of pit crews can sometimes mean the difference between winning and losing. Pit staff frequently videotape each pit stop, looking for ways to reduce the amount of time a car spends in the pit lane. The amount of time spent on each activity — changing tyres, cleaning windshields, and pumping gas – is calculated. Another occurs on a daily basis in the restaurant sector. Many restaurants provide breakfast, lunch, and supper menus. As cooks prepare for various dinners and (in some situations) one serving staff clocks out while another clocks in, switching from one to the other might take up to an hour. This process can be sped up to provide for a better transition between serving times. Restaurants have gotten so skilled at it that they now offer products from two – or even all three – menus at any time of day.
Q.36 Which types of machinery are you most experienced with?
Even though the types of machinery that you are experienced with may be specified on your resume yet the interviewer would like to evaluate your exposure to certain types of machinery. Ensure that you should have a good understanding of the type of machinery. Sample Answer - You may start by saying that - The machinery I am most experienced with would be A, B, and C. As an expert in using these types of machinery used by top The World Class Manufacturing Group, Inc. I assure for best results. Are you looking for any specific type of machinery?
Q.37 What do you understand by cutting edge machinery?
The focus of the interviewer is to be assured that you have done enough research on The World Class Manufacturing Group, Inc. You should be well prepared before attending the interview. Sample Answer - Start by saying that you have done enough research n World Class Manufacturing this fact indicates high quality and more local employment opportunities. Support by giving relevant examples and experience
Q.38 What is World Class Manufacturing (WCM)?
WCM is a philosophy and set of practices focused on achieving the highest levels of manufacturing efficiency and excellence.
Q.39 How will the knowledge gained from your most recent position help you succeed in this role with The World Class Manufacturing Group?
Focus of the interviewer is to know about your skills and knowledge you have gained in your current role and how those skills will help you to succeed in this position. It is suggested to start with the core skills mentioned in job description and di8scuss about how you currently exercise those skills. Sample Answer - As I could see you are looking for a candidate with strong leadership skills and in my previous job I lead a team of 20 technicians with great output. Since taking a leadership role with my current company, our productivity has increased by 35%, and our employee turnover has decreased by 40%. Therefore I am confident to apply my leadership successes to this role and excel given the opportunity.
Q.40 What are the key principles of WCM?
Key principles include continuous improvement, employee involvement, waste reduction, and customer focus.
Q.41 What is the role of maintenance In maintaining?
The primary role of maintenance in maintaining asset value over time is to get more visible at the business level with the increase in its acquisition and maintenance costs.
Q.42 Why is WCM important in manufacturing?
WCM improves quality, reduces costs, enhances productivity, and boosts competitiveness in the global market.
Q.43 What do you understand by maintenance load forecasting?
Maintenance forecasting is considered as a major part of planning concerned with estimating the current and future amount of maintenance work and type needed. Such that maintenance load forecasting is considered as a complex task which involves a lot of uncertainties and influenced by many factors like age of the equipment, rate of use, usage, skills of workers and climate.
Q.44 What is Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in WCM?
TPM aims to eliminate equipment downtime and optimize machine performance through employee involvement.
Q.45 Explain the concept of Lean Manufacturing.
Lean focuses on minimizing waste, optimizing processes, and delivering value to customers while reducing costs.
Q.46 What is the role of 5S in WCM?
5S (Sort, Set in order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) is a method for organizing the workplace to improve efficiency and safety.
Q.47 How does WCM promote employee involvement?
WCM encourages employees to actively contribute to problem-solving, innovation, and process improvement.
Q.48 What is the difference between Kaizen and WCM?
Kaizen is a component of WCM, focusing on continuous small improvements, while WCM encompasses broader manufacturing excellence principles.
Q.49 What is Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in WCM?
VSM is a tool for analyzing and optimizing the flow of materials and information within a manufacturing process.
Q.50 What is the role of Autonomous Maintenance (AM) in WCM?
AM empowers operators to perform routine equipment maintenance, reducing breakdowns and improving reliability.
Q.51 How does WCM improve product quality?
WCM identifies and eliminates defects, improves process consistency, and ensures products meet customer specifications.
Q.52 What is the role of Visual Management in WCM?
Visual management uses visual cues and indicators to communicate information about processes and performance effectively.
Q.53 Explain the concept of Just-In-Time (JIT) production in WCM.
JIT aims to minimize inventory levels and waste by producing and delivering goods as needed, reducing lead times.
Q.54 How does WCM address equipment reliability?
Through TPM and AM practices, WCM ensures machines are well-maintained, reliable, and available for production.
Q.55 What is the relationship between WCM and Six Sigma?
Six Sigma is a data-driven methodology that can be used within WCM to achieve higher process quality and reduce defects.
Q.56 What is the purpose of Root Cause Analysis (RCA) in WCM?
RCA identifies the underlying causes of problems or defects and guides corrective actions to prevent recurrence.
Q.57 How does WCM promote a culture of continuous improvement?
WCM encourages employees at all levels to seek ways to enhance processes, reduce waste, and achieve excellence.
Q.58 What is Single-Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) in WCM?
SMED reduces setup times for machines, allowing for more frequent production runs of smaller batches.
Q.59 How does WCM improve the supply chain?
WCM optimizes logistics, inventory management, and supplier relationships to ensure materials flow smoothly and efficiently.
Q.60 What is the role of Benchmarking in WCM?
Benchmarking involves comparing performance metrics against industry best practices to identify areas for improvement.
Q.61 What is the goal of WCM's Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)?
OEE aims to maximize the efficiency and utilization of production equipment by addressing availability, performance, and quality.
Q.62 How does WCM address the reduction of waste?
WCM uses tools like 5S, JIT, and Lean principles to identify and eliminate various forms of waste, such as overproduction, defects, and excess inventory.
Q.63 What is Andon in WCM, and what is its purpose?
Andon is a visual signaling system that alerts workers to production problems, promoting quick response and resolution.
Q.64 What is the role of Cross-Functional Teams in WCM?
Cross-functional teams bring together employees from different areas to collaborate on process improvement projects.
Q.65 What is "Poka-Yoke" in WCM?
Poka-Yoke refers to mistake-proofing or error prevention techniques to ensure that defects or errors cannot occur in the first place.
Q.66 How does WCM impact lead times in manufacturing?
By reducing setup times, minimizing waiting, and optimizing processes, WCM helps shorten lead times for products.
Q.67 What are the key elements of a WCM implementation plan?
Elements include leadership commitment, employee training, data collection, and the development of improvement projects.
Q.68 How does WCM improve workplace safety?
WCM emphasizes safety practices, hazard identification, and employee involvement to create a safer work environment.
Q.69 What is the role of Value Analysis (VA) in WCM?
VA involves analyzing product components to reduce costs while maintaining or improving quality and functionality.
Q.70 How does WCM support sustainability initiatives?
WCM reduces resource consumption, waste generation, and environmental impact by optimizing processes and reducing waste.
Q.71 What is the role of Management by Objectives (MBO) in WCM?
MBO sets clear objectives, goals, and targets to align organizational efforts with WCM principles and outcomes.
Q.72 How does WCM promote customer satisfaction?
By focusing on quality, responsiveness, and customization, WCM ensures that products meet or exceed customer expectations.
Q.73 What is the significance of Continuous Flow Manufacturing in WCM?
Continuous flow minimizes work-in-progress and enhances production efficiency by ensuring a smooth and uninterrupted process flow.
Q.74 What does the CIM anticipates?
CIM anticipates reintegration of special expertise organized in functional departments through integrated information process.
Q.75 What is the role of Cellular Manufacturing in WCM?
Cellular manufacturing organizes production into self-contained cells or workstations, reducing material handling and lead times.
Q.76 Which is the initial step in Kanban implementation?
The initial step in Kanban implementation is mapping value stream.
Q.77 How does WCM address the reduction of energy consumption?
WCM incorporates energy-efficient technologies and practices to minimize energy usage in manufacturing processes.
Q.78 When is moving range chart used?
Moving Range chart is used with limited data, such as when production rates are slow, testing costs are very high, or there is a high level of uncertainty relative to future projects.
Q.79 What is the concept of "Gemba" in WCM?
Gemba refers to the practice of going to the actual workplace to observe and understand processes, identify issues, and make improvements.
Q.80 Where does the target should ideally be located under process standard deviation?
The middle point between USL and LSL.
Q.81 How does WCM improve product design and development?
WCM encourages cross-functional collaboration and data-driven decision-making to create more efficient and cost-effective products.
Q.82 What does Total Productive Maintenance on?
Total Productive Maintenance focuses on proactive and progressive maintenance of equipments by utilizing the knowledge of operators.
Q.83 What is the role of Standardized Work in WCM?
Standardized Work documents and maintains best practices to ensure consistency, quality, and efficiency in production.
Q.84 What are the key performance indicators (KPIs) used in WCM?
KPIs include OEE, defect rates, cycle times, setup times, and inventory turnover, among others.
Q.85 How does WCM address the reduction of labor costs?
By optimizing processes, reducing waste, and enhancing productivity, WCM can lead to labor cost savings.
Q.86 What is the role of Employee Training and Development in WCM?
Training equips employees with the skills and knowledge needed to contribute effectively to WCM practices.
Q.87 How does WCM facilitate rapid problem-solving?
WCM promotes root cause analysis, data-driven decision-making, and cross-functional collaboration to resolve issues quickly.
Q.88 What is the role of WCM in achieving manufacturing agility?
WCM allows organizations to respond quickly to changing market demands and customer requirements.
Q.89 What is the relationship between WCM and the 5 Whys technique?
The 5 Whys technique is often used within WCM to identify the root causes of problems and defects.
Q.90 How does WCM address variability in manufacturing processes?
WCM employs statistical process control and other tools to reduce variability and ensure consistent product quality.
Q.91 What is the role of Total Quality Management (TQM) in WCM?
TQM principles, such as customer focus and continuous improvement, align with WCM practices to enhance overall quality.
Q.92 How does WCM promote long-term sustainability in manufacturing?
By reducing waste, optimizing processes, and enhancing quality, WCM supports the longevity and competitiveness of manufacturing operations.
Q.93 What is the role of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) in WCM?
FMEA is used to identify potential failure modes in processes or products and prioritize actions to prevent them.
Q.94 How does WCM support the adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies?
WCM provides a foundation for integrating technologies like automation, robotics, and data analytics into manufacturing processes.
Q.95 What is the relationship between WCM and Just-In-Sequence (JIS) production?
JIS is a component of JIT that ensures materials are delivered to the production line in the precise sequence required for assembly.
Q.96 What is the role of a Gemba Walk in WCM?
A Gemba Walk involves leaders visiting the workplace to observe, engage with employees, and identify opportunities for improvement.
Q.97 How does WCM address the reduction of defects and rework?
Through standardized work, mistake-proofing, and continuous improvement, WCM aims to eliminate defects and rework.
Q.98 What is the significance of a Pull Production System in WCM?
Pull systems, like Kanban, enable production based on actual customer demand, reducing overproduction and waste.
Q.99 How does WCM promote the utilization of employee skills and creativity?
WCM encourages employees to contribute ideas, innovations, and problem-solving expertise to improve processes.
Q.100 What is the role of Key Performance Indicator (KPI) boards in WCM?
KPI boards display real-time performance data to inform employees and drive continuous improvement efforts.
Q.101 How does WCM address the reduction of lead times in manufacturing?
By streamlining processes, minimizing setup times, and optimizing workflow, WCM shortens lead times for products.
Q.102 What is the role of a Continuous Improvement (CI) team in WCM?
CI teams are responsible for identifying opportunities, implementing changes, and tracking improvements in the manufacturing process.
Q.103 How does WCM support the implementation of 5S practices?
WCM incorporates 5S principles to create an organized, efficient, and standardized workplace that reduces waste and improves safety.
Q.104 What is the relationship between WCM and process automation?
WCM often integrates automation to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and enhance overall manufacturing performance.
Q.105 How does WCM address the reduction of machine downtime?
Through TPM and AM practices, WCM aims to keep machines running efficiently and minimize unplanned downtime.
Q.106 What is the role of a Quality Control Circle (QCC) in WCM?
QCCs consist of employees who meet to identify and address quality-related issues and improvement opportunities.
Q.107 How does WCM align with the principles of Continuous Improvement (CI)?
WCM fosters a culture of CI by encouraging employees to regularly evaluate and improve processes and standards.
Q.108 What is the role of Kaizen events in WCM?
Kaizen events are short-term, focused improvement activities aimed at making rapid changes and solving specific problems in a process.
Q.109 How does WCM support the reduction of overproduction in manufacturing?
By implementing JIT and pull systems, WCM ensures production matches actual customer demand, reducing overproduction.
Q.110 What is the role of leadership in the successful implementation of WCM?
Leadership commitment, vision, and active involvement are essential for driving WCM initiatives and fostering a culture of excellence.
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