Project Management Interview Questions

If you are looking for a senior role in management, then you must go through these general project management questions to prepare well.

Q.1 Who is a stakeholder in a project?
A stakeholder is an individual or department or anyone having an interest in the project
Q.2 What will identify stakeholder for a project?
Stakeholders have an interest in the project hence, can influence the decisions or can take decisions about the project. Identification of stakeholders is done by listing individual or department or anyone being impacted by the project or having an interest or influence on the project. Conducting stakeholder analysis helps in identification of stakeholder.
Q.3 What is a power-interest grid in project management?
A power-interest grid is used to group and prioritize various stakeholders of a project by creating a grid with extent of power on the project being on the vertical axis and level of interest in the project on horizontal axis. The grid is divided into 4 blocks or groups of stakeholders to guide the level of engagement to be done with them.
Q.4 List the documents required for project initiation
The work documents usually needed for project initiation are: Business Case Document (lists detailed financial analysis of investments and feasibility), Agreement (a contract with the client detailing scope, time, cost, and terms/conditions agreed), Project charter (lists project objectives and authorizations) and Stakeholder register (listing stakeholders with their interest and powers)
Q.5 How to collect requirements for a project?
The techniques employed for requirement gathering in a project includes: observation, questionnaires, surveys, interviews and available documents or project relevant documents
Q.6 Explain requirement traceability matrix
Requirement traceability matrix or RTM is a matrix which maps the requirements of the user with the test cases so that all the user requirements are covered and validated during the testing.
Q.7 What does a project plan includes?
A project plan is a draft proposal of the project and it includes data on: project scope, schedule to be maintained and costs involved in the project.
Q.8 Describe WBS
WBS expands to Work breakdown structure which is a visual tool showing hierarchical and delivery based breakup of the project. It details cost estimates and break-up of scope of work. It helps in project schedule development.
Q.9 Explain the RACI matrix
RACI is a matrix which maps role of stakeholders. It maps tasks or decisions in a project to stakeholders and to which level of responsibility which are: Responsible, is Accountable, must be consulted with, and shall stay Informed.
Q.10 What is meant by critical path in project management?
The term critical path refers to the best possible time in which the project will be completed by listing the all tasks needed for completion and has the longest time duration.
Q.11 What is usually included in Statement of work (SOW)?
The Statement of work document includes work to be done, resources needed, location of work, allowable time and cost, delivery schedule, standards to follow and acceptance criteria
Q.12 List group elicitation technique for requirement gathering in a project
Group elicitation technique for requirement gathering includes nominal group technique, affinity diagram, brainstorming, facilitated workshops and focus groups.
Q.13 What helps in determining project cost?
Various tools and techniques used for estimating project cost are: determining resource cost, analyzing vendor bid analysis, undertaking reserve analysis to address cost overrun and taking note of the cost of quality as per project's objectives.
Q.14 Which estimating technique uses expert judgment and historical information of similar activities to estimate future schedule activity?
Analogous estimating technique uses expert judgment and historical information of similar activities.
Q.15 What is NGT group technique?
NGT expands to nominal group technique which involves members to write their ideas anonymously and then for each collected ideas members vote. Idea with highest votes is sent for further brainstorming and application.

Differentiate amongst project feasibility and project appraisal

Project feasibility measures expected feasibility of a project whereas project appraisal is the value estimate at a specific date.
Q.17 Which risk treatment type is used if a risky activity in project is not undertaken?
The risk treatment type is avoidance, if a risky activity is not performed in a project.
Q.18 Give an example of transferring project risk
Outsourcing risky activity is an example of transferring project risk.
Q.19 Illustrate sharing of project risk
Sharing of project risk is done by taking insurance for any risky activity in a project.
Q.20 Describe baselining in project management
A baseline in project management refers to the basis against which future measurements are compared. Usually 3 baselines are used in project management: baselines for scope, schedule and cost.
Q.21 What is crashing in project management?
Crashing refers to reduction in completion time of an activity by increasing resources assigned to the activity of the project.
Q.22 What is Fast-Tracking in project management?
Fast-Tracking focuses on re-arrangement of activities to achieve parallel execution instead of sequential so as to reduce completion time.
Q.23 Describe Resource levelling in project management
Resource levelling is done to arrange activities so as to avoid resource shortage while performing those project's activities. It is conducted due to limited resource availability.
Q.24 Explain Critical chain method in project management
The Critical chain method involves changing start or end dates of activities for avoiding resource shortage and increase resource availability. It adds extra time amongst activities and thus, avoids disruptions due to resource shortage.
Q.25 What is ABC analysis in project management?
ABC analysis groups large numbers of tasks into 3 groups - A,B or C depending upon their importance so as to better focus the crucial tasks during a project.
Q.26 How to apply Pareto analysis in project management?
The Pareto principle states, 80 percent of the tasks can be done in 20 percent of time and 20% of tasks will take 80% of tasks. Hence, project manager can prioritize the tasks to be focused on.
Q.27 What finds the early start and early finish dates for pending network activities in a project?
Forward pass under CPM/PERT analysis
Q.28 What finds the late start and late finish dates for pending network activities in a project?
Backward pass under CPM/PERT analysis
Q.29 List popular theories of motivation to motivate the project team
Popular theories of motivation are: Abraham Maslow Theory (on fulfilment of lower-order needs), Hertzberg’s Theory and Douglas McGregor Theory (also called as Theory X and Theory Y)
Q.30 Which negotiation style involves I Win - You Win
It is the "Win/Win" or the collaboration style of negotiation where both parties collaborate.
Q.31 Which elements does Gantt chart in a project, shows relationships between?
A Gantt chart shows relationships amongst the project tasks and units of time showing the start and end time for each activity.
Q.32 What results in a scope creep in a project?
A scope creep can originate from various reasons and usual reasons are: incomplete project requirements gathering, insufficient involvement of critical stakeholders, and lack of support from the executive sponsor and poor implementation of change control.
Q.33 How to address scope creep in a project?
Scope creep in a project can be addressed by: involving the customer early in the project and critical stakeholders in every phase of the project, thoroughly conducting requirement gathering and having a change control process.
Q.34 Calculate the earned value of the project after six months and Rs. 60,000 have been spent, for a project to be finished in 12 months with budget of Rs. 1,00,000.
The earned Value is 40% of the value of total work or 40% of 100,000 and is: Rs. 40,000.
Q.35 What is Lean Six Sigma in project management
Lean Six Sigma involves combining lean and six sigma techniques to reduce waste and variations in a task or project.
Q.36 Explain affinity diagram and its use in a project
An affinity diagram organizes ideas as per their affinity or similarity and their relationship. It is a creative group technique about a product, process or problem.
Q.37 What is Gold Plating in project management?
Gold plating refers to providing or delighting the customer with extra services or features and which were not part of the project's scope.
Q.38 How do you prioritize tasks in a project
Prioritization is done on basis of multiple factors which include: relevance, cost, resource availability, time to completion, etc. Various prioritization techniques are applied for deciding the same. Tools like Gantt chart, CPM/PERT charts are also used.
Q.39 What is the basis of task delegation to the team members?
Task delegation to the team is dependent upon the skill level of the team member, availability and past records of the team member.
Q.40 What is the important factor in managing remote teams in the WFH scenario due to COVID-19?
Communication amongst team members is the most important factor in team management
Q.41 What is BOT project delivery?
BOT expands to Build-Operate-Transfer and it involves the design, construction, operations, maintenance and financing of the project and after agreed time duration it is transferred back to the owner.
Q.42 How does the 5S methodology can be applied in a project?
5S is a lean technique to create and maintain a safe, clean and efficient workplace by eliminating wastes in a project.
Q.43 Describe brainstorming
Brainstorming is a group technique involving group of people to contribute ideas for solving a problem.
Q.44 What is your leadership style to manage a project?
Leadership style depends upon the tasks involved and can be any of the following: Democratic, autocratic or liaises faire.
Q.45 How to manage a difficult stakeholder in the project?
Stakeholder is important contributors and integral part of the project. Managing a difficult stakeholder involves connecting with them to addressing their issue, listening to them, have clear communication without any negative emotions or bias.
Q.46 How to manage conflict within the project team?
Conflict management techniques are applied and as per situation the technique can be any of: collaborating, forcing, accommodating, avoiding or compromising.
Q.47 How will you address under performance by the project team?
Under performance by the project team can be addressed by analyzing the reasons for under performance, understanding and listening to the team members for problem being faced, creating an encouraging and motivated environment to achieve the desired performance and continuously monitoring to address any event or factor of under performance.
Q.48 Why does change request appear during project execution?
Change requests originates die to change in stakeholder’s requirements or changes in regulations/ laws/ performance or any critical issue needing changes in project scope.
Q.49 What is the main responsibility of a project manager?
Following are the some main responsibility of a Project Manager. 1. Developing the project plans 2. Managing the project stakeholders 3. Managing the project schedule
Q.50 What does Gantt Charts are used for, in project management?
It outline the sequence and duration of all tasks.
Q.51 Who creates product backlog under Scrum based project management?

The product owner creates product backlog under Scrum.

Q.52 What do you mean by SIPOC, in project management?
SIPOC stands for suppliers, inputs, process, outputs, and customers. It is a tool that summarizes the inputs and outputs of one or more processes in table form.
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