Computer Fundamentals

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Q.1 What is a computer?
A computer is an electronic device that processes data to perform various tasks and calculations.
Q.2 What are the main components of a computer system?
The main components include the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage, input devices, and output devices.
Q.3 Explain the difference between hardware and software.
Hardware refers to physical components, while software comprises programs and instructions that run on the hardware.
Q.4 What is the CPU, and what is its role in a computer?
The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the "brain" of the computer responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations.
Q.5 What is RAM, and why is it important?
RAM (Random Access Memory) is a volatile memory that stores data temporarily for quick access by the CPU, speeding up tasks.
Q.6 What is the function of the motherboard in a computer?
The motherboard is the main circuit board that connects and provides communication between all hardware components.
Q.7 What is an operating system, and why is it necessary?
An operating system manages hardware resources, runs applications, and provides a user interface, making the computer usable.
Q.8 Explain the difference between system software and application software.
System software (e.g., OS) manages the computer, while application software (e.g., Word, Excel) serves specific user tasks.
Q.9 What is storage in a computer, and what types of storage devices are commonly used?
Storage refers to non-volatile memory used to store data long-term. Common devices include hard drives, SSDs, and USB drives.
Q.10 What is a file system, and how does it organize data on storage devices?
A file system structures and manages data on storage devices, enabling organization, retrieval, and access control.
Q.11 What is a computer network, and why are networks important?
A computer network connects multiple computers to share resources, information, and enable communication.
Q.12 Explain the concept of a computer virus.
A computer virus is malicious software designed to replicate itself and damage or corrupt computer files and systems.
Q.13 What is the difference between input and output devices?
Input devices (e.g., keyboard, mouse) allow data entry, while output devices (e.g., monitor, printer) display or produce results.
Q.14 What is a bit, and how many bits make up a byte?
A bit is the smallest unit of digital data, and 8 bits make up a byte, which can represent a character or value.
Q.15 What is binary code, and why is it used in computers?
Binary code uses 0s and 1s to represent data in a way that computers can process and manipulate using electronic circuits.
Q.16 What is a CPU clock speed, and how does it impact a computer's performance?
CPU clock speed, measured in GHz, determines how many instructions a CPU can execute per second; higher speeds usually mean better performance.
Q.17 What is a software update, and why are they important?
Software updates contain bug fixes, security patches, and improvements, ensuring software runs smoothly and securely.
Q.18 What is a graphical user interface (GUI), and how does it differ from a command-line interface (CLI)?
A GUI uses visual elements like icons and windows, while a CLI relies on text commands for user interaction with the computer.
Q.19 What is cloud computing, and what are its benefits?
Cloud computing involves using remote servers to store, manage data, and run applications, providing scalability, accessibility, and cost-efficiency.
Q.20 Explain the concept of a computer algorithm.
An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure or set of rules for solving a specific problem or accomplishing a task.
Q.21 What is a computer file, and how are files organized in folders or directories?
A computer file is a unit of data storage, and files are organized hierarchically in folders or directories to maintain order.
Q.22 What is a web browser, and how does it work?
A web browser is software that accesses and displays web pages by interpreting HTML and other web technologies.
Q.23 What is a computer mouse, and how does it function?
A computer mouse is an input device that detects motion and allows users to interact with a computer's graphical user interface.
Q.24 Explain the concept of computer memory hierarchy.
Memory hierarchy involves multiple levels of storage, from fast, small caches to larger, slower main memory and long-term storage.
Q.25 What is a computer monitor, and what are common types of monitors?
A computer monitor is an output device that displays visual information. Common types include LCD, LED, and OLED monitors.
Q.26 What is the purpose of a computer keyboard, and what are some keyboard shortcuts?
A computer keyboard is an input device for typing text and commands. Shortcuts like Ctrl+C (copy) and Ctrl+V (paste) save time.
Q.27 What is a computer algorithm, and why is it important in computer science?
An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure for solving problems or performing tasks, serving as the foundation of computer science and programming.
Q.28 What is virtual memory, and how does it work?
Virtual memory is a memory management technique that uses disk storage to supplement physical RAM, allowing larger programs to run.
Q.29 Explain the concept of computer architecture.
Computer architecture refers to the design and organization of a computer's hardware components and how they work together.
Q.30 What is a computer program, and how does it execute on a computer?
A computer program is a set of instructions that tell a computer what to do. The CPU executes these instructions in a specific sequence.
Q.31 What is the BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) in a computer?
The BIOS is firmware that initializes hardware components and provides a bridge between the operating system and hardware during startup.
Q.32 What is a computer server, and how does it differ from a regular desktop computer?
A server is a computer designed for specific tasks like storing and sharing data, serving websites, or managing network resources, while desktops are general-purpose.
Q.33 Explain the concept of data compression in computing.
Data compression reduces the size of data for storage or transmission, saving space and bandwidth.
Q.34 What is the purpose of a computer's power supply unit (PSU)?
The PSU provides electrical power to all components of a computer, converting AC power from an outlet to the DC power required by the computer.
Q.35 What is an IP address, and how does it work in computer networking?
An IP address is a numerical label assigned to devices on a network to identify and communicate with each other.
Q.36 Explain the concept of computer programming languages.
Programming languages are used to write instructions that computers can understand and execute, enabling software development.
Q.37 What is an input buffer, and how does it work in data input?
An input buffer temporarily stores data entered by the user, allowing the computer to process and interpret the input.
Q.38 What is binary arithmetic, and why is it important in computing?
Binary arithmetic involves operations like addition and subtraction using binary numbers, fundamental in digital computation.
Q.39 Explain the concept of data encryption in computer security.
Data encryption is the process of converting data into a coded form to protect it from unauthorized access or interception.
Q.40 What is a computer algorithm's time complexity, and why is it analyzed?
Time complexity measures the efficiency of an algorithm by assessing how its runtime grows with input size, helping choose optimal algorithms.
Q.41 What is a computer's cache memory, and how does it improve performance?
Cache memory is a small, high-speed memory unit that stores frequently accessed data, reducing CPU access times and improving performance.
Q.42 What is cloud storage, and what are its advantages and disadvantages?
Cloud storage allows users to store data remotely, providing accessibility and scalability but also raising concerns about security and privacy.
Q.43 Explain the concept of a computer network protocol.
Network protocols are rules and conventions that govern communication between devices in a computer network.
Q.44 What is a computer algorithm's space complexity, and why is it analyzed?
Space complexity measures the memory usage of an algorithm, helping determine memory-efficient solutions.
Q.45 What is the purpose of an input/output (I/O) port on a computer?
I/O ports facilitate the connection of external devices like USB drives, monitors, and peripherals to the computer.
Q.46 What is a computer virus, and how can users protect their systems from viruses?
A computer virus is malicious software that can damage or corrupt files and systems. Users can protect their systems with antivirus software and safe browsing practices.
Q.47 What is a computer algorithm's best-case and worst-case time complexity?
The best-case time complexity represents the shortest possible runtime, while the worst-case represents the longest runtime for an algorithm.
Q.48 What is a computer's optical drive, and what types of media can it read/write?
An optical drive reads and writes data to optical discs like CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs for storage and playback.
Q.49 What is a computer algorithm's average-case time complexity?
The average-case time complexity represents the expected runtime of an algorithm when considering all possible inputs, providing a more realistic assessment.
Q.50 Explain the concept of computer multitasking.
Multitasking allows a computer to run multiple programs simultaneously, switching between tasks to provide a seamless user experience.
Q.51 What is a computer's power-on self-test (POST), and when does it occur?
POST is a diagnostic process that occurs when a computer is powered on, checking hardware components for proper functionality.
Q.52 What is computer storage capacity, and how is it measured?
Storage capacity measures the amount of data a storage device can hold and is typically expressed in bytes (e.g., gigabytes or terabytes).
Q.53 Explain the concept of computer virtualization.
Virtualization allows multiple virtual instances of an operating system or application to run on a single physical server, improving resource utilization.
Q.54 What is a computer's expansion slot, and how is it used?
An expansion slot allows users to add hardware components like graphics cards, sound cards, or network cards to a computer.
Q.55 What is a computer algorithm's complexity analysis, and why is it important?
Complexity analysis assesses an algorithm's performance and efficiency, aiding in the selection of suitable algorithms for specific tasks.
Q.56 What is the purpose of a computer's system clock or clock speed?
The system clock controls the timing and synchronization of computer operations, including CPU instructions and data transfers.
Q.57 Explain the concept of computer data types.
Data types specify the kind of data a variable or object can hold in a computer program, helping ensure proper data handling.
Q.58 What is computer software licensing, and why is it important?
Software licensing defines how software can be used, distributed, and modified, ensuring compliance with legal terms and conditions.
Q.59 What is computer booting, and what happens during the boot process?
Booting is the process of loading an operating system into memory when a computer is turned on or restarted. It involves hardware initialization and OS startup.
Q.60 What is a computer's BIOS, and how can users access and modify BIOS settings?
The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) stores firmware that initializes hardware components. Users can access BIOS settings during the boot process by pressing a designated key (e.g., F2 or Del) and modify various hardware settings.
Q.61 A byte has how many bits?
8 bits are in a byte
Q.62 1KB is composed of how many bytes?
1024 bytes are present in 1MB
Q.63 1 GB consists of how many megabytes?
1024 bytes are present in 1MB
Q.64 What will we configure so that some files are not shown in the Windows explorer?
We can enable the hidden attribute of those file and the files will not be shown in the Windows explorer
Q.65 What is the use of USB device?
USB device can be attached to computer without any configuration as it automatically configured like USB mouse or keyboard.
Q.66 Are there any input devices other than keyboard or mouse?
Yes, digital pen, touch screen and many other devices can be used for input.
Q.67 What type of device is a scanner?
Scanner is an input device as it sends image of documents to scan, to the computer.
Q.68 When should a laser printer be used in the office?
If the number of print outs needed in the office are high or at least 20 + in a month, then laser printer is suggested.
Q.69 What is the benefit of laser printer?
A laser printer prints with high speed, at higher resolution and is low cost as compared to inkjet printer if printing black and white prints.
Q.70 What is the benefit of inkjet printer?
An inkjet printer is allow cost solution to print color print outs for home, small office or small requirement.
Q.71 When should an inkjet printer be used in the office?
An inkjet printer should be used in the office if color prints are needed though in small number (may be 10 to 15 prints in a month).
Q.72 List a most used storage device
A pen drive or USB drive is the most used storage device
Q.73 Does RAM stores data after the computer is switched off?
No, RAM does not store data after the computer is switched off.
Q.74 Which storage device stores data after the computer is switched off?
Hard disk can store data after the computer is switched off.
Q.75 Does a USB mouse needs device driver to be installed for using it?
No, USB mouse does not needs device driver as it automatically detected and drivers are installed for usage.
Q.76 Which technology is used to connect computers wirelessly to a network?
Wi-Fi is the technology used to connect computers wirelessly to a network.
Q.77 Which Microsoft utility improves the access speed of data on the computer by storing data alongside to other on hard disk instead of on various parts of a hard disk?
Disk Defragmenter is a Microsoft utility improves the access speed of data on the computer.
Q.78 Where does the start button is located on the Windows desktop?
The start button is located on bottom left-most end, of the Windows desktop
Q.79 What is the shortcut key in Windows to copy a file?
We need to select the file to copy and press the control key and 'c' key both at once, to copy the selected file.
Q.80 How do you move a file in Windows?
In Windows to move a file, we first select the file and press control and 'x' keys both at once and then press control and 'v' key where the file was to be moved to.
Q.81 How can we access a folder in Windows on a network?
We can access a folder in Windows on a network by enabling the sharing options of the folder.
Q.82 Which section shows date and time on the Windows desktop?
Notification Area on the Windows desktop shows the date and time.
Q.83 What is ASCII?
ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange and is used for storing data on computer.
Q.84 List the keyboard keys to create a new blank document in MS-Word?
The keyboard keys are control and 'n', both at once.
Q.85 The keyboard keys to open a file in MS-Excel, is?
The keyboard keys are control and 'o', both at once.
Q.86 Name a free web based email
Gmail is a free and popular web based email.
Q.87 What produces soft copy output?
Monitor produces soft copy output
Q.88 What produces hard copy output?
Printer produces hard copy output
Q.89 Which storage unit stores more data - MB or GB?
GB stores more data as 1 GB equals 1024 MB.
Q.90 How will you protect data on hard disk?
We should take regular backup, which will protect data on hard disk and will be accessible if the hard disk crashes.
Q.91 What could be the reason for printouts being light on from the black and white laser printer?
The toner has depleted and new one needs to be placed before other prints.
Q.92 What to do if the icons on the desktop are too big in size?
The video device driver is absent or corrupt due to which correct video resolution has not been selected. Install correct video device driver and select the correct resolution for addressing the issue.
Q.93 What to do if the computer is not connected to local network?
Check the network cable or the wireless connection for any loose or interruption. Network device driver should be checked.
Q.94 What do you understand by buffer?
A buffer is a temporary storage to store data items and is used during dat transfer between devices like computer and pen drive.
Q.95 Which unit is used to describe the screen resolution?
Pixel is the unit for screen resolution.
Q.96 What is meant by booting of the system?
Booting of the system means that the computer has just been started and it is loading the operating system like Windows along with other programs.
Q.97 What is BIOS?
BIOS stores hardware setting of the computer and is used by the operating system.
Q.98 What is FAT?
FAT is a file system from Microsoft used in Windows operating system.
Q.99 Which file system is used in Windows 10?
Windows 10 uses NTFS as its file system.
Q.100 Which character indicates division in Excel?
The character '/' is used for division in Excel
Q.101 List the smallest storage unit in a computer?
Bit is the smallest storage unit in a computer.
Q.102 How many GB are there in a TB?
1024 GB are present in one TB.
Q.103 Which default file extension is used for a compressed file in Windows?
ZIP is the default file extension used for a compressed file in Windows.
Q.104 What is the default file extension for Notepad files?
TXT is the default file extension for Notepad files.
Q.105 List the file extension being used by MS-Paint files
BMP is the default file extension for MS-Paint files.
Q.106 Which shortcut key will close the active window on Microsoft Windows?
The keys 'Alt' and 'F4' pressed both at once, will close the active window on Microsoft Windows.
Q.107 What is the benefit of graphic files with jpg extension as compared to bmp?
The jpg extension file takes lesser space as compared to bmp graphic files for same image.
Q.108 Which formatting can be applied to text in Notepad?
Notepad only supports font based formatting for a text which includes font type, size and style.
Q.109 Can we open multiple Notepad windows?
Yes, we can open multiple Notepad windows.
Q.110 Can we open same file in multiple Notepad windows at once?
Yes, we can open same file in multiple Notepad windows at once.
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