Business Intelligence

BI (Business Intelligence) technology-driven process for analyzing data and presenting actionable information. We have list down some important interview questions on Business Intelligence to help you for your next job interview.

Q.1 What is Business Intelligence?
Business Intelligence can a defined as collective technologies, tools, applications, and practices for data collection. This helps in providing those data to the users in order for running the business or be a part of it. Further, the business analyst’s reports are created and compiled using the Business Intelligence methods that help in making better decisions for the success of the business.
Q.2 List down the main objectives of Business Intelligence.

The main objectives of Business Intelligence are:

  • Firstly, BI is best for making enterprise-level decisions.
  • Secondly, it helps in identifying the wrong tracks and methods of a business.
  • Thirdly, BI can collect the data for analysis and then compile them for monitoring corrective actions.
  • Next, it helps in determining whether a company is performing as per plan.
Q.3 Name some of the Business Intelligence (BI) tools.

The Business Intelligence (BI) tools used by Business Analysts are:

  • Tableau
  • SAS
  • Microsoft BI
  • Cognos
  • MicroStrategy
  • Business Objects
Q.4 What steps you will take for executing a BI system in your professional method?

For executing a BI system:

  • Firstly, pull out the raw data from the corporate database. The data may be available over many heterogeneous databases.
  • After that, the data is cleaned to put in the data warehouse by associating the table and forming the data cubes.
  • Then, by using BI systems, business analysts can pull out the business insights, request ad-hoc reports, analyze those clean datasets, and project the business decisions.
Q.5 What is OLAP?
OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing which refers to a technological concept applied in many BI tools and applications. This helps in executing complex analytical calculations. Moreover, it examines the trends, performs intricate calculations (summation, count, average, min, max), and performs advanced data modeling in a BI system. Further, it is the main objective of reducing the response time of queries and improving the effectiveness of the calculated reports.
Q.6 What is Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)?
OLTP systems can be considered as a huge collection of small data transactions like insert, delete, and update. These are operational databases that can produce fast processing of a query. Moreover, it also controls the integrity and consistency of data. Further, it acts as the number of transactions per second that helps in measuring the efficiency of an OLTP system.
Q.7 Describe the advantages of Business Objects.
  • Firstly, it is user-friendly.
  • Secondly, it provides familiar business terms.
  • Thirdly, it offers a Graphical Interface with a drag and drops feature.
  • Next, it provides powerful reports in less time.
  • Lastly, it has customized dashboards using the application foundation and business objects SDK.
Q.8 What is Data Warehousing?
Data Warehousing can be defined as a repository system used for analyzing and reporting data from many different sources and forms. These data can be accessed from the oracle database, SQL Server, Postgres, or a simple excel sheet. Further, the warehouse uses one central mechanism repository using which the business analyst can get all historical reports linked with that data.
Q.9 Provide some features of the Data warehouse.
A data warehouse refers to a separate database responsible for storing historical information records. Moreover, it is kept separate from an operational database. Secondly, data warehouse helps in making top management strategic and tactical decisions depending on the analysis by processing and analyzing the data. Thirdly, data analysis in the data warehouse helps the business analysts and users to see the present business trends. Lastly, a data warehouse is also responsible for combining historical data analysis.
Q.10 Give some advantages of using BI systems.
  • Firstly, BI systems help in increasing productivity and make it possible for generating a business report with just a single click.
  • Secondly, it increases the visibility of the data analysis and identifies those areas that request attention.
  • Thirdly, the BI system helps in setting accountability.
  • Lastly, BI systems automate many tasks by providing predictive analysis, benchmarking, modeling figures, and statistical calculations using different methodologies.
Q.11 Are there any disadvantages of Business Intelligence Systems?

There can be some disadvantages of Business Intelligence Systems, which are:

  • Firstly, BI systems are costly. That is to say, using them for small and medium-scale enterprises will be expensive.
  • Secondly, executing BI systems for the data warehouse is complicated.
Q.12 Define aggregates.
Aggregates can be defined as a form of data found in the aggregate table. However, for calculating these aggregates, many aggregate functions like min, max, count average, etc. are used.
Q.13 What do you understand by the term granularity?
Granularity informs us about the level (high to low) of information residing in the table. However, the lower the granularity is, the low-level information it contains.
Q.14 Define Join and its types.
Join refers to the relationship that takes place between the two tables that helps to merge into one table. The motive of join to restrict the Cartesian product and join is defined in the Where clause of the SQL statement. However, some of the types of joins are: Equi join Outer join Theta join Shortcut join
Q.15 List out the technical Terms used in Business Intelligence.

Some of the terms used in BI are:

1. Aggregation -  This merges all the information into a single user understandable form like sets, lists, or graphs so that in a predefined pattern.

2. Atomic Data - This is the topmost level of granularity of data present in the data warehouse.

3. Attribute - This refers to the specification of an object which is used as the column or in another form when preparing reports in tabular format, graphical format, or textual format.

4. Data Mart - This refers to a collection of data set from data warehouse which are logically related and can be used to serve the problem of business.

5. Database - This stores all the data in a structured (semi-structured or unstructured) form so that the data can be obtained in a convenient manner and a very quick data retrieval.

6. Forecasting - This refers to a process used in the decision-making prediction model methodology.

7. Matrix - This represents the data in the form of rows and columns.

8. KPI - These are the Key Performance Indicators used for measuring the business for validating the overall health of its operation.

Q.16 Define ERP in BI.
ERP stands for Enterprises Resource Planning. This is important in Business Intelligence. That is to say, it is used for forming one single system which integrates both the Data and the Processes of an organization. Further, this can be considered as a combination of Software, Hardware, and Database that is capable of storing data in different functions according to organization divisions and needs.
Q.17 What do you understand about SCM in terms of Business Intelligence?
The increase in demand for products and with limited ability for raising the price was already a challenge for retail enterprises in a competitive market. So, for overcoming that Supply Change Management (SCM) is the key secret of every successful manufacturing company and is not limited to manufacturing companies only. The SCM is used for defining the business strategies and operations. However, using SCM manufacturing companies builds a strong relationship with their customer, so that they can deliver high-quality products at the right price and on time. Further, it also helps in performing consistently.
Q.18 Why we should combine SCM and BI?
SCM information obtains value when it is analyzed, especially if that analysis can take in a wide view of the enterprise. This kind of integration was neither common nor easy until recently when platforms such as SAP began offering modules that could provide a BI window on SCM.
Q.19 Explain E-commerce in terms of Business Intelligence.
E-commerce refers to electronic commerce that is the process of buying and selling products or services over the electronic medium like the Internet. The E-commerce system is a combination of the Online Transaction Process, SCM system, inventory management system, EDI system, Online Banking system, and data collection systems. The basic medium of E-commerce is World Wide Web (www). However, the Business Intelligence implemented in E-commerce websites helps in increasing sales. This can provide all the information related to the product availability at the single spot, an easy-to-use interface, the flexible payment procedure, the attractive schemes of vendors, etc.
Q.20 What is Data Drilling?
Data drilling refers to the technique for transforming the data and extract the needed information from the database (or data warehouse) by executing various operations in relational, tabular, or multidimensional data.
Q.21 What do you understand by data DRILL-IN and DRILL-UP?
These both refer to the techniques for navigating between levels of data. Where the data-DRILL-IN (drill-down) technique is used for navigating from the most summarized data form to the most detailed data form. And, data DRILL-UP is used for navigating the most detailed information to the summarized information.
Q.22 What is an Executive information system (EIS)?
Executive information system (EIS) can be considered as a tool used for providing summarized and consolidate reports about ongoing transactions inside the organization. Moreover, the EIS provides the reports in a graphical interface and is planned for improving the quality of strategies that are used to scale up the organization’s growth by higher-level management. Further, it comes with various techniques for extracting, processing, transforming, and presenting the data in the form of graphical reports.
Q.23 Define KPI ad its features.
The Key Performance Indicator is a technology that uses a metric calculation for measuring how well an organization performing both individually and as in a competitive market. This also calculates the strategic, tactical, and operational performance which is critical for the current and future success of the organization. Some of its features include: Actionable Align with business goals effectively. Improvement of one measurement of the organization doesn’t hamper the other measurements.
Q.24 Describe BI Dashboard in brief.
The dashboard is used for displaying the information about the organization. However, BI dashboards include three components: 1. Operational The operational dashboard provides information about failed ETL (extract, transform and load). It also creates a report about the database like its health, memory utilized, etc. 2. Technical It is used for measuring the individual user growth within an organization. This also analyzes the user utilization of the new subject areas. Further, it can be used for creating the training strategic reports and for scheduling the Service-Level-Agreement reports. 3. Strategic It measures the team goal, mission of the organization, and how well it is achieved. It is also used for measuring the corporate vision and user satisfaction.
Q.25 What is Dimensional Modeling (DM)?
DM is used for designing a data warehouse and supporting end-user queries. The DM uses the two main concepts first one is “FACT” and another one is “Dimensions”. The fact also refers to measures that are typically numeric values. And dimensions refers to a group of descriptors that defines facts. Every Phase of Dimensional Modeling results in some metadata that can be used to identify what is exactly present in the data warehouse.
Q.26 What are the steps used for building a dimensional model data warehouse?
In dimensional modeling, the facts are encapsulated with a star-like structure of dimensions. This process cover four-step used for building DM based data warehouse. Firstly, identifying the business process. Secondly, declaring the grains. Thirdly, identifying Dimensions. Lastly, identifying facts.
Q.27 Can you name some of the techniques used for data architecture design?

The techniques include:

1. UML (Unified Modeling Language) This is a powerful language used for building an effective data structure from the organization’s viewpoint.

2. Data Flow Diagram (DFD) This is the graphical representation of a system that defines the input and output of the data from the system and database.

3. Use Case Diagram They are used for defining the actual group of users as well as the access level of each user.

Q.28 Define ETL.

This is the process through which any data can be inserted into a database or more specifically into a data warehouse. However, it involves three processes to enter data into the data warehouse.

1. Extract - It is the process of extracting data from an external source. The external source could be as simple as an application interface to collect data or could be as complex as another data warehouse.

2. Transform - It is the phase where we convert the raw information to our needs. In this phase, we implement the business logic to calculate the exact information we need for our data warehouse and which is useful to us.

3. Load - This is the final phase where we take the transformed information from an external source and insert it into our data warehouse.

Q.29 Define Confirmatory Data Analytics.
Confirmatory Data Analytics deals with the already existing methods, theories, or hypotheses. The major objective of confirmatory data analysts is to prove the pre-existing theses, models, or theories either true or false. These analytics are heavily relying on probability models and must be open to all the untested assumptions. The outcomes of such analytics are a specific answer to the specific question.
Q.30 What is Exploratory Data Analytics?
Exploratory Data Analytics deals with the new features of data to discover and implement new methods, theories, or hypotheses. The major objective of exploratory data analysts is to introduce new models, theories, or hypotheses. In this, the data analyst doesn’t require any assumptions. These are based on data calculations without any preconceptions. In actuality, exploratory data analytics tries to remove the assumptions from the confirmatory data analytics technique.
Q.31 What do you understand about Qualitative Data Analytics?
The data analysis from non-numeric forms like images, videos, audios, documents, notes, or interviews comes under Qualitative Data Analytics. Qualitative Data-Analytics usually require the involvement of people or organizations and their symbols, activities, signs, etc. they load with meaning. The major objective of Qualitative data analytics is to create understanding or result in some form of interpretation from the data collected.
Q.32 What is a Supervisor?
Supervisor is the product is used to set up and maintain a secure environment for Business Objects products.
Q.33 Differentiate between Physical Backups and Logical Backups.

Physical backups refer to the backups of the physical files used in storing and recovering databases, such as control files, data files, and archived redo logs. Eventually, every physical backup becomes a copy of files storing database details to some other location – on disk or some offline storage, such as tape.

Logical backups consist of logical data, such as stored procedures or tables, exported from a database with an export utility and stored in a binary file, to re-import later into a database through the concurrent Oracle import utility. Lastly, physical backups form the basis of any sound backup and recovery strategy, whereas, logical backups supplements physical backups many a times but might not be sufficient to protect against data loss without physical backups.

Q.34 What are the different Multidimensional Analysis methods available in business objects?
Primarily there are two multidimensional analysis methods available in Business Objects, namely - Slice and Dice and Drill Down. Slice and dice mode enables you to switch the position of data in a report (for instance moving data from columns to rows).
Q.35 What is Indexing?
Indexing is used for storing some information about data for the fast retrieval of data. The main advantage of storing indexes is to retrieving relevant information within time. Without indexes, the search may require going through every piece of data or information available in a data warehouse, which is more time-consuming and waste a lot of computing power.
Q.36 Describe the different types of hierarchy?

There are two types of hierarchies namely -

1. Default hierarchy: It contains the dimension objects in the order in which they are presented in the class.

2. Custom hierarchy: A custom hierarchy is created from default hierarchy.

Q.37 Define the terms slicing and dicing.
Slicing and dicing is the technology used for breaking down the information into smaller chunks so that an analyst can view information from every possible viewpoint and understand it better.
Q.38 What are the ways to distribute the Universe?
There are two ways to distribute a universe - through the repository and through the file system.
Q.39 What is Data partitioning?
This refers to the process of grouping data that represent a proximate collection of data elements based on the similarity of elements or distance. Identical clusters have zero distance or dissimilarity whereas all other clusters have positive distance. All the elements grouped into a cluster share some similar property or characteristic. The criterion which defines the characteristic is totally dependent on the implementation process.
Q.40 What is dashboard in a data warehouse?
Dashboard is nothing but the arrangement of all the reports and graphs on one page. It is nothing but the collection of reports in a different format which has same functionality display on the same page.
Q.41 What do you understand by the term Hierarchy?
A hierarchy refers to an ordered series of related dimensions grouped together for executing a multidimensional hierarchy. However, the relationship between objects in the hierarchy is one–to–many. Further, the types of hierarchies include: Default hierarchy Custom hierarchy
Q.42 Explain the scope of analysis.
This can be defined as a subset of data that is returned by a query used for analysis in your report. However, the data for your scope of analysis does not appear in the report until you decide that you want to use it in the analysis.
Q.43 Name the main elements of Designer Interface.
The main elements in the designer interface are: Table browser for choosing the tables and columns. The Structure pane, a database structure of the universe. The Universe pane includes the components in which it is going to use in BI.
Q.44 Define Repository.
The repository refers to the database which contains information about the users and data. This is built and maintained by the general supervisor. Moreover, it is used for sharing resources of business objects. Further, it has three domains: Universe domain Document domain Security domain
Q.45 What type of model is used for text retrieval?
Nearest Neighbour
Q.46 What is the objective of a business intelligence system?
It helps in Improving the timeliness and quality of input for decision making.
Q.47 What is a subset of a data warehouse?
Data mart
Q.48 Which tool is used for querying data warehouse?
Data-mining tools
Q.49 Which type of data sets, does k-means partitioning is suitable for?
Separated clusters
Q.50 Whati is Neural Networks?
A neural network is a network or circuit of neurons, or in a modern sense, an artificial neural network, composed of artificial neurons or nodes.
Q.51 What is the prime characteristic of neural networks?
Predictive capability
Q.52 What is the goal of a customer relationship management system?
The main use of CRM is to eliminate negative interactions with customers
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