Industrial Relations

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Top 50 Industrial Relation Interview Questions and Answers

Q.1 What are Industrial Relations (IR)?
IR refers to the relationship between employers, employees, and unions in the workplace, including their interactions, negotiations, and conflicts.
Q.2 Why are Industrial Relations important in the workplace?
IR fosters cooperation, resolves disputes, ensures fair labor practices, and creates a harmonious work environment.
Q.3 What is the role of a labor union in Industrial Relations?
Labor unions represent and advocate for the rights and interests of workers, negotiating on their behalf with employers.
Q.4 Explain the concept of collective bargaining.
Collective bargaining is a process where unions and employers negotiate employment terms and conditions, including wages and benefits.
Q.5 What are the key components of an employment contract?
An employment contract typically includes terms related to job responsibilities, compensation, benefits, working hours, and termination conditions.
Q.6 What is the significance of industrial disputes in IR?
Industrial disputes highlight conflicts or disagreements between employers and employees, which can lead to strikes, lockouts, or negotiations.
Q.7 How can effective communication improve Industrial Relations?
Clear and open communication fosters trust, reduces misunderstandings, and promotes a positive workplace atmosphere.
Q.8 What is the difference between industrial harmony and industrial conflict?
Industrial harmony refers to a state of cooperation and mutual understanding in the workplace, while industrial conflict represents disagreements and disputes.
Q.9 Describe the concept of workplace grievance procedures.
Grievance procedures are mechanisms for employees to raise and resolve complaints or disputes related to their work or working conditions.
Q.10 How do labor laws and regulations influence Industrial Relations?
Labor laws set the framework for employment relationships, protecting workers' rights and regulating employer-employee interactions.
Q.11 What are the major factors that can lead to industrial disputes?
Factors include wage disputes, unfair treatment, workplace safety concerns, and disagreements over working conditions or benefits.
Q.12 What is the role of a Human Resources department in Industrial Relations?
HR departments often mediate disputes, ensure compliance with labor laws, and implement policies to promote positive relations.
Q.13 What are the consequences of unresolved industrial disputes?
Unresolved disputes can lead to productivity loss, strikes, legal actions, damage to reputation, and financial losses for both employers and employees.
Q.14 How can employers and unions promote employee engagement in Industrial Relations?
Engaging employees through involvement in decision-making, feedback mechanisms, and recognition programs can foster positive relations.
Q.15 Explain the importance of fairness and equity in Industrial Relations.
Fair and equitable treatment of employees ensures trust, job satisfaction, and a harmonious workplace, reducing the likelihood of disputes.
Q.16 What is the role of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods in Industrial Relations?
ADR methods like mediation and arbitration provide non-litigious means to resolve disputes, often leading to quicker and more amicable solutions.
Q.17 How does industrial democracy relate to Industrial Relations?
Industrial democracy involves involving workers in decision-making processes within organizations, enhancing their influence and satisfaction.
Q.18 Describe the term "workplace diversity" and its relevance to Industrial Relations.
Workplace diversity refers to the presence of employees from different backgrounds. Managing diversity can prevent conflicts and enhance IR.
Q.19 What are the responsibilities of a shop steward in a unionized workplace?
Shop stewards represent union members, address grievances, liaise with management, and promote members' interests within the union.
Q.20 How does a strike impact Industrial Relations within an organization?
Strikes disrupt operations, strain relations, and can lead to negotiations to address workers' demands and resolve the underlying issues.
Q.21 Explain the concept of "good faith bargaining" in collective bargaining.
Good faith bargaining requires both parties (union and employer) to negotiate honestly, openly, and with a sincere intent to reach an agreement.
Q.22 What is the significance of an Industrial Relations policy within a company?
An IR policy sets out guidelines for managing employee relations, ensuring consistency, fairness, and compliance with labor laws.
Q.23 How do work-related stress and burnout affect Industrial Relations?
High levels of stress and burnout can lead to dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and conflicts, negatively impacting relations between employees and employers.
Q.24 Describe the role of a conciliator in resolving industrial disputes.
A conciliator assists parties in resolving disputes by facilitating communication, suggesting solutions, and helping reach a mutually acceptable agreement.
Q.25 What is the significance of negotiation skills in Industrial Relations?
Effective negotiation skills are essential for reaching agreements, resolving disputes, and maintaining positive employer-employee relations.
Q.26 Explain the concept of "industrial espionage" and its implications for Industrial Relations.
Industrial espionage involves unauthorized gathering of trade secrets or confidential information, potentially leading to legal conflicts and damage to relations.
Q.27 How can employers promote a culture of fairness and equity in the workplace?
Employers can establish transparent policies, provide equal opportunities, and address discrimination to promote fairness and equity.
Q.28 What role does technology play in modern Industrial Relations?
Technology facilitates communication, data analysis, and remote work arrangements, affecting how disputes are handled and IR is managed.
Q.29 Describe the role of a strikebreaker or replacement worker during a strike.
Strikebreakers are individuals hired by employers to perform the work of striking employees. They can exacerbate conflicts in some cases.
Q.30 How can a company effectively manage labor turnover and retention as part of Industrial Relations?
Managing turnover involves offering competitive benefits, addressing job dissatisfaction, and providing opportunities for growth and development.
Q.31 What are the potential advantages of employee participation programs in Industrial Relations?
Participation programs can enhance communication, employee engagement, and decision-making, contributing to positive IR outcomes.
Q.32 Explain the concept of "adverse action" related to Industrial Relations.
Adverse actions include unfair treatment or retaliation against employees for exercising their rights, which can lead to legal disputes.
Q.33 What is the role of third-party organizations (e.g., labor boards) in Industrial Relations?
Third parties often mediate disputes, enforce labor laws, and provide impartial judgment in conflicts between unions and employers.
Q.34 How do whistleblowing policies impact Industrial Relations within a company?
Whistleblowing policies protect employees who report misconduct, fostering trust and transparency in the workplace.
Q.35 What are the ethical considerations in managing Industrial Relations?
Ethical considerations include honesty, fairness, respect for employee rights, and compliance with labor laws and regulations.
Q.36 How does the concept of work-life balance affect Industrial Relations?
Work-life balance policies and practices can reduce employee stress and improve job satisfaction, contributing to positive IR outcomes.
Q.37 What is the role of a strike vote in Industrial Relations?
A strike vote is a formal process in which union members decide whether to strike. It indicates the willingness to take collective action.
Q.38 How can an organization effectively handle redundancy and layoffs in terms of Industrial Relations?
Handling layoffs with transparency, support, and adherence to legal requirements can minimize conflicts and negative impacts on relations.
Q.39 Describe the concept of "outsourcing" and its implications for Industrial Relations.
Outsourcing involves contracting external organizations for certain functions. It can lead to labor-related disputes if not managed properly.
Q.40 What is the role of a disciplinary process in Industrial Relations?
Disciplinary processes establish guidelines for addressing employee misconduct, ensuring fairness and consistency in enforcement.
Q.41 Explain the concept of "strike pay" and its role in supporting striking workers.
Strike pay is financial support provided to striking workers by their union to help them sustain themselves during a strike.
Q.42 How do changing economic conditions impact Industrial Relations within organizations?
Economic changes can influence wage negotiations, job security, and labor market conditions, affecting the dynamics of IR.
Q.43 Describe the significance of the International Labor Organization (ILO) in the context of Industrial Relations.
The ILO sets labor standards, promotes social justice, and facilitates international cooperation on labor-related matters.
Q.44 What are the implications of a work stoppage (e.g., strike or lockout) on Industrial Relations?
Work stoppages disrupt operations and intensify labor conflicts, often leading to negotiations and resolutions.
Q.45 How can companies address and prevent workplace discrimination within Industrial Relations?
Addressing discrimination involves implementing anti-discrimination policies, training, and fostering an inclusive workplace culture.
Q.46 Explain the concept of "unfair labor practices" and their impact on Industrial Relations.
Unfair labor practices are actions by employers or unions that violate labor laws, potentially leading to legal actions and damaged relations.
Q.47 What role do labor tribunals or industrial courts play in Industrial Relations?
Labor tribunals or industrial courts adjudicate disputes related to labor laws, ensuring fairness and compliance with legal standards.
Q.48 Describe the term "workplace harassment" and its relevance to Industrial Relations.
Workplace harassment refers to unwelcome behaviors or actions that create a hostile environment. Addressing harassment is crucial for maintaining positive IR.
Q.49 How can companies promote employee involvement in decision-making within Industrial Relations?
Involvement can be promoted through employee participation programs, regular feedback channels, and opportunities for input in key decisions.
Q.50 Explain the concept of a "lockout" and its implications for Industrial Relations.
A lockout is a tactic used by employers to prevent employees from working during a labor dispute. It can escalate conflicts and negotiations.
Q.51 How does globalization impact Industrial Relations within organizations?
Globalization can lead to international labor issues, supply chain complexities, and the need for cross-border IR strategies.
Q.52 Describe the concept of a "wildcat strike" and its implications for Industrial Relations.
A wildcat strike is an unauthorized work stoppage by employees. It can strain relations and disrupt operations.
Q.53 How can companies ensure that they comply with labor laws and regulations in Industrial Relations?
Compliance involves staying informed about labor laws, conducting regular audits, and seeking legal counsel when needed.
Q.54 Explain the concept of "social dialogue" and its role in Industrial Relations.
Social dialogue involves discussions and negotiations among employers, employees, and governments to address labor-related issues.
Q.55 What is the role of a trade union leader or representative in Industrial Relations?
Union leaders represent union members, negotiate on their behalf, and make decisions regarding labor actions.
Q.56 How do technological advancements (e.g., automation) impact labor relations?
Automation can change job roles and create concerns about job security, requiring careful management and negotiations.
Q.57 Describe the concept of a "working time directive" and its relevance to Industrial Relations.
A working time directive sets limits on working hours, break times, and rest periods to protect employees' health and well-being.
Q.58 How does the concept of "employee engagement" relate to Industrial Relations?
Engaged employees are more likely to have positive relations with employers, leading to improved productivity and job satisfaction.
Q.59 Explain the role of a strike ballot in Industrial Relations.
A strike ballot is a formal vote by union members to decide whether to proceed with a strike action. It ensures democratic decision-making.
Q.60 How can companies address and prevent workplace bullying within Industrial Relations?
Addressing bullying involves implementing anti-bullying policies, awareness training, and creating a culture of respect.
Q.61 What are the potential consequences of failing to address Industrial Relations issues in the workplace?
Consequences may include productivity decline, increased turnover, legal actions, and damage to the organization's reputation.
Q.62 What is Industrial Relations?
In Industrial relations, Industry are viewed as an economic activity that includes manufacturing, producing, or processing of goods or services performed by a group of individuals. And, relations means the connection and communication pertains between the employer and the employees within a workplace.
Q.63 Who is the founder of Industrial relations?
It was founded by John R. Commons when he created the first academic industrial relations program at the University of Wisconsin in 1920.
Q.64 List the various factors affecting industrial relations?
1. Individual Behavior 2. Organizational Structure 3. Psychological Factors 4. Leadership Style 5. Economic and Technical Environment 6. Legal and Political Environment
Q.65 Explain Individual Behavior in industrial relations?
This explains that every person has a different perception, background, skills, knowledge, experience, and achievements which influences an individual’s behavior.
Q.66 Explain the role of Organizational Structure in industrial relations?
The hierarchical structure creates more formal relationships among the employees belonging to different hierarchical levels in an organization.
Q.67 What does Psychological Factors includes and portrays?
This explains an employee’s attitude and mentality towards the employer and the given task. And the employer’s psychology towards the workers can be positive or negative.
Q.68 What are Primary Parties?
Those persons or associations which are directly associated with or influenced by the functions of industrial relations.
Q.69 What is the role of Employees in organizations?
Employees share their views, suggestions, ideas with the management to improve the business operations and become a part of organizational decision-making, and ensuring the betterment of the working conditions.
Q.70 Why does the government started regulating the industrial relations through labour courts and tribunals?
1. Safeguarding the interest of both the parties. 2. Ensuring that both the employer and the employee, abide by the legal terms and conditions.
Q.71 What is an Employers’ Association?
1. Employers Association refers to an authoritative body, formed to protect the interest of the industrial owners. 2. They represent the owners in collective bargaining with the employees or government, national issues, and provide insight into employee relations in an organization.
Q.72 What do you mean by Trade Unions ?
Trade Unions is defined as, when the workers unite together to form an association and elect a representative among themselves and to raise their demands in front of the management.
Q.73 What does Trade Unions demands?
They demand better working conditions and higher job security for the workers by safeguarding the interest of the employees by demanding control over the decision-making at various levels.
Q.74 What is the aim of International Labor Organization (ILO)?
International Labor Organization aimed to look into matters like Worker’s compensation, employee’s work duration and days, women employment, employee’s safety, security, and medical facilities with maternity protection.
Q.75 Explain the function of the Human Resource department?
The human resource department or team acts as a mediator between the organization and its employees for dealing with personnel issues and conflicts. These professionals address the disputes at the initial level, act as a change agent by bringing a mental revolution and perform the role of an administration expert and a strategic partner.
Q.76 Explain the Employer-Employee Relations?
The relationship that pertains between the business owner and the employees of a particular company is known as the employer-employee relationship.
Q.77 How would you define Group Relations?
The interactions and communication between the workers belonging to different workgroups are studied under group relations.
Q.78 What are Labour Relations?
In an organization, the relationship shared by the managers and the workers is termed as labour relations.
Q.79 What is the role of Public Relations?
Public relations or community relations is the interaction and relationship of the organization with the society or external bodies.
Q.80 List the objectives of Industrial Relations.
1. Handling Grievance 2. Mental Revolution 3. Employees’ Rights Protection 4. Contract Interpretation 5. Boosting Morale 6. Collective Bargaining 7. Increasing Productivity
Q.81 What is the role of Industrial Relations in Society?
1. Industrial Relations forms part of the process for ensuring that every employed individual is making a living wage. 2. Industrial Relations processes aim to achieve equality of opportunity within our country’s workplaces. 3. The Industrial Relations processes and channels that are in place help protect the rights of the individual. 4. Industrial relations specifically create a balance between being highly productive and enjoy the job you are into the maximum.
Q.82 Explain government's role in Industrial Relations.
Government plays an important from Industrial Relations in a way that a safe working environment promotes employee and employer satisfaction, which in turn helps maintain high employment rates. This further, reflect well on the government and directly address and influence issues such as poverty and crime.
Q.83 Explain the Factories Act, 1948.
The Factories Act, 1948 is a social act that was passed to strengthen the position of workers, who are working in factories across the country. This Act is applicable to all factories which have employed 10 or more than workers on any day of the preceding 12 months, engaged in manufacturing process being carried out with the aid of power or twenty or more than twenty workers are employed in manufacturing process being carried out without the aid of power.
Q.84 What are the main objectives of the Indian Factories Act, 1948?
1. According to the provision of working hours of adults, no adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in a factory for more than 48 hours a week. 2. For protecting the health of workers, the Act lays down that every factory shall be kept clean and all necessary precautions shall be taken. 3. In order to provide safety to the workers, the Act provides that the machinery should be fenced, no young person shall work at any dangerous machine. 4. For the welfare of the workers, the Act provides that in every factory adequate and suitable facilities for washing should be provided and maintained for the use of workers. 5. Facilities for storing and drying clothing, facilities for sitting, first-aid appliances, shelters, restrooms, and lunchrooms should be there. 6. The provisions of The Factories Act, 1948, or any rules made under the Act, or any order given in writing under the Act is violated, it is treated as an offense.
Q.85 List the compliances to be followed under Factories act, 1948.
1. Registration/Amendment/Renewal/Exemptions/Permission under the Factory Act, 1948, and The Building & Other Construction Workers (R.E &C) Act 1996. 2. Computerized statutory records and Late Night Women Working Permission. 3. Factory License, Factory building Plan, and Standing Order Approval. 4. Issuance of Assessment/NOC under the Building &Other Construction Workers (R.E &C) Act 1996. 5. Issuance of Registration Certificate under Contract Labour Act and under the BOCW Act. 6. Maintaining Notice Board Compliances under applicable labour laws. 7. Monthly Statutory Data Processing, Documentation & Submissions.
Q.86 What information does the chief inspector stores according to section 7?
1. Name and address of the occupier 2. Name and address of the factory 3. Name and owner of the premise 4. Address for communication 5. Nature of the manufacturing process to be carried in the factory
Q.87 What is the aim of Maternity Benefits Act, 1961?
The Maternity Benefits Act, 1961 aims at regulating the employment of women employees all over the country.
Q.88 What is the applicability of the Act?
1. Every factory, mine, or plantation, 2. An establishment engaged in the exhibition of equestrian, acrobatic, and other performances, irrespective of the number of employees, and 3. Every shop or establishment wherein 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding 12 months.
Q.89 Who is entitled to maternity benefit?
Every woman employee, whether employed directly or through a contractor, who has actually worked in the establishment for a period of at least 80 days during the 12 months immediately preceding the date of her expected delivery, is entitled to receive maternity benefit. The qualifying period of 80 days shall not apply to a woman who has immigrated into the State of Assam and was pregnant at the time of immigration.
Q.90 What are the non cash benefits according to the maternity act?
1. Two nursing breaks in the course of her daily work until the child attains the age of 15 months. (Section 11) 2. In the case of tubectomy operation leave with wages for 2 weeks. (Section 9A) 3. No discharge or dismissal while being on maternity leave. (Section 12) 4. No change to her disadvantage in any of the conditions of her employment while on maternity leave. (Section 12) 5. Pregnant women discharged or dismissed may still claim maternity benefit from the employer. (Section 12)
Q.91 State the Section 10.
A woman suffering from illness on account of miscarriage, medical termination of pregnancy, delivery, premature birth is entitled for further leave for 1 month in addition to the leave with wages at the rate of maternity benefit.
Q.92 What is the Medical Bonus provided to the pregnant employee?
Every woman entitled to maternity benefit shall also be allowed a medical bonus of Rs. 250, if no pre-natal confinement and post-natal care is provided for by the employer free of charge.
Q.93 List the rights of employee under the maternity act, 1948.
1. To make a complaint to the Inspector and claim the amount of maternity benefit improperly withheld by the employer. 2. To appeal against an order of the employer depriving her of the maternity benefit or medical bonus or dismissing or discharging her from service to the competent authority, within 60 days of the service of such order.
Q.94 What is the Paternity Benefit Bill, 2017?
In 2017, After the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017, a new bill is known as Paternity Benefit Bill had been proposed by Rajeev Satav, MP from Maharashtra, in the Lok Sabha in September for the benefits of fathers of newborns.
Q.95 State the Paternity Benefit Bill, 2017.
The bill states that all workers, including those in the unorganized and private sector, get paternity leave of fifteen days extendable up to three months.
Q.96 Define contract labourer in accordance with the Contract Labour Act 1970.
A contract labourer is defined in the Act as one who is hired in connection with the work of an establishment by a principal employer through a contractor.
Q.97 What are the responsibilities of contractor?
1. Pays the wages as determined by the Government, if any, or; 2. Pays the wages as may be fixed by the Commissioner of Labour. 3. In their absence pays fair wages to contract labourer. 4. Provides Canteen, Rest rooms, Requisite number of latrines and urinals, Drinking water, Washing, First Aid, etc.
Q.98 Why the Minimum Wages Act was enforced?
Minimum Wages Act was enforced to ensure the employers did not exploit employees with insufficient wages. The Act is applicable on all establishments, factories, places of business, and industry types.
Q.99 On what factors does the determination of minimum wage depends?
1. Level of income 2. Paying capacity 3. Prices of essential commodities 4. Productivity 5. Local conditions.
Q.100 Define the term wages?
The term wages has been defined as all remuneration payable to a person employed in respect of his employment or of work done in such employment.
Q.101 List the three benefits of the PF act.
1. Contributory Provident fund. 2. Pension benefits to employees/family members. 3. Insurance cover to the members of Provident Fund.
Q.102 What is a Grievance?
A grievance refers to a formal complaint based on feelings of dissatisfaction or perceptions of unfair treatment pertaining to an employee’s work or workplace.
Q.103 List the two types of Grievance.
In the workplace, there are two types of grievances: General Grievances and Individual Grievances.
Q.104 Define Dissatisfaction.
Anything disturbs an employee, whether or not the unrest is expressed in words.
Q.105 What is a Complaint?
A spoken or written dissatisfaction brought to the attention of the supervisor.
Q.106 What are the different Forms of Grievance?
1. Factual 2. Imaginary 3. Disguised
Q.107 What are the Causes of Indiscipline?
1. Organizational Factors 2. Individual Factors 3. Environmental Factors.
Q.108 List the Exit Policy Elements.
1. Purpose 2. Scope 3. Objective 4. Process for each type of employee separation 5. Conditions during the notice period 6. Exit Procedure 7. Responsibility of the individual department 8. Exit Interview
Q.109 What are the Causes of Industrial Disputes?
1. Economic cause includes causes related to increase in wages, allowances, bonus, gratuity, higher share in industrial profits etc. 2. Non economic causes include demand for proper working conditions, adequate working hours, advanced infrastructure etc.
Q.110 What does Collective Bargaining involves?
1. Negotiations 2. Drafting 3. Administration 4. Interpretation of documents written by employers, employees, and the union representatives 5. Organizational Trade Unions with an open mind.
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