Artificial Intelligence

The rapid adoption of AI across global businesses will help the AI market reach about $13 trillion in 2030. AI and ML researchers to interact with business practitioners to build real-world solutions. So if you are a data scientist looking for a job, then these question and answer will surely help you.

Q.1 Tell us about an artificial intelligence Neural network.
Artificial intelligence Neural Networks can model mathematically the way the biological brain operates, supporting the machine to think and determine the same way the humans do- making them proficient in acknowledging things like objects, speech, and animals like we do.
Q.2 Is AI supervised or unsupervised?
Within (AI) artificial intelligence and machine learning, there are 2 fundamental approaches: unsupervised learning and supervised learning. The central difference is one uses labeled data to assist predict outcomes, while the other does not.
Q.3 Can Java be used for AI?
Java is the extensively utilized programming language in the society and is one of the most desirable choices of AI programming. Because of its Virtual Machine Technology, it's simple to execute on various platforms. That indicates once it's written and edited on one platform, you don't have to organize it again.
Q.4 Is JRE installed with JDK?
The JDK involves the JRE. We must not use any non-supported variant or edition of the Java JRE or JDK. We should follow the exploration aids to download the JDK or JRE that is suitable for the operating system. Also, it if good follow the connection directions that are provided with the JRE.
Q.5 Explain the various areas where AI can be used.
Artificial Intelligence can be employed in various areas like Speech recognition, Computing, Humanoid robot, Bio-informatics, Computer software, Space and Aeronautics’s etc.
Q.6 Why do we require Artificial Intelligence in today's time?
The purpose of Artificial intelligence is to make intelligent devices that can mimic human behavior. We require AI for today's time to resolve problems, make our lives more smooth by automating the routine work, saving manpower, and to perform more other tasks.
Q.7 What are the importance of Dijkstra algorithm?
Dijkstra's algorithm is generally used in the routing protocols needed by the routers to refresh their forwarding table. The algorithm gives the slightest cost path from the root router to other routers in the network.
Q.8 List the tools of AI.
  • Keras
  • Scikit Learn
  • Theano
  • Caffe
  • PyTorch
  • Auto ML
  • OpenNN
  • Google ML Kit
Q.9 Is Java beneficial for machine learning?
Not only is it reasonable to use Java for machine learning and data science application advancement, but it is also the favored option by various developers for a quantity of reasons, involving Java is one of the most used languages used for enterprise development.
Q.10 How is machine learning associated with AI?
Machine learning is a subfield or we can say subset of Artificial intelligence. It is a path of achieving AI. As both are the 2 differ concepts and the relation among both can be understood as "AI uses different Machine learning algorithms and concepts to solve the complex problems."
Q.11 What is a rule-based system in AI?
A rule-based expert system is the most simplistic form of artificial intelligence and practices directed knowledge-based rules to resolve a problem. The purpose of the expert practice is to take instruction from a human authority and convert this into a quantity of hardcoded rules to implement to the input data.
Q.12 Define the reward maximization.
Reward maximization phrase is utilized in reinforcement learning, and which is a purpose of the reinforcement learning agent. In RL, a reward is a assertive feedback by taking action for a transition from 1 state to another.
Q.13 Explain the distinction between logistic regression and classification.
Logistic regression is essentially a supervised classification algorithm. On the other hand, in a classification query, the target variable (or output), y, can take only discrete values for allowed set of features (or inputs), X. Contrary to popular belief, logistic regression IS a regression model.
Q.14 When can Dijkstra's algorithm be practiced?
It can be practiced to maintain networks, to check the action of adversaries in video games, or to supervise cars with their route.
Q.15 What are intelligent agents?
An intelligent agent is an independent entity that leverages sensors to perceive a situation and get decisions. It can also practice actuators to implement both simple and complex responsibilities.
Q.16 What do you understand by the hyperparameter?
In machine learning, hyperparameter is the parameters that define and handle the complete training method. The instances of these parameters are Hidden Layers, Activation functions, Learning rate, Hidden units, etc.
Q.17 State the difference between rule-based and learning based AI?
Rule-based artificial intelligence methods are permanent objects. On the opposite hand, machine learning principles are mutable things that allow enterprises to change the data or value by employing mutable coding languages such as java.
Q.18 Is NLP supervised or unsupervised?
Machine learning for NLP and text analytics includes a collection of statistical methods for recognizing parts of entities, speech, sentiment, and different aspects of text. It additionally could be a collection of algorithms that work beyond large sets of data to derive meaning, which is called as unsupervised machine learning.
Q.19 Explain the Hidden Markov model.
Hidden Markov model is a analytical model applied for describing the probability relationships over a chain of pronouncements. In the hidden markov model, hidden represents a property that it believes that the state of a method generated at a special time is hidden from the observer, and Markov explains that it expects that the process completes the Markov property. The HMM models are used for temporal data.
Q.20 Why is Java 8 so popular?
One of the key causes why Java 8 is still so successful is that it is an LTS (or Long-Term Support) version.
Q.21 What are the kinds of regression?
  • Linear regression.
  • Ridge regression.
  • Lasso regression.
  • Polynomial regression.
  • Logistic regression.
Q.22 What is an expert system?

An expert system is a computer system that mimics the decision-making ability of a human. It is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence (AI) technologies to simulate the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization that has expert knowledge and experience in a particular field.

Q.23 State the difference between strong AI and weak AI.
The difference among the two is just like the phrases sound. Strong AI can successfully imitate human intelligence and is at the center of advanced robotics. While, weak AI can only divine particular characteristics that match human intelligence. Alexa and Siri are good examples of weak AI.
Q.24 What is the application of Prim's algorithm?
Prim's Algorithm is applied to determine the least spanning tree from a graph. Prim's algorithm detects the subset of edges that covers each vertex of the graph such that the amount of the weights of the edges can be reduced.
Q.25 How do we run Prolog on Windows?
Double-click the Prolog program icon. Use the File menu of the resulting window to create a new file and give it a name, with the extension . pl, making sure you save it at the root level of your M drive. Enter the text of your file in the file window.
Q.26 What is Weka used for?
Weka is a combination of machine learning algorithms for information mining tasks. The algorithms can either be implemented directly to a dataset or called from your own Java code. Weka includes devices for data pre-processing, regression, association rules, classification, clustering, and visualization.
Q.27 What are filtering attributes?
Filtering attributes are a listing of entity attributes that, when mutated, cause the plug-in to execute. These attributes can be arranged when registering the plug-in utilizing the Plug-in Registration tool. If no attributes are set, then the plug-in will execute every time an update message occurs.
Q.28 Explain a Turing test.
The Turing test, called after Alan Turing, is a process of testing a machine’s human-level intelligence. For instance, in a human-versus-machine situation, a judge will be tasked with distinguishing which terminal was maintained by a human and which was occupied by a computer based on individual performance.
Q.29 What is Dijkstra shortest path algorithm?
Dijkstra's algorithm is also called as the shortest path algorithm. It is an algorithm utilized to determine the shortest path among nodes of the graph. The algorithm builds the tree of the shortest paths from the opening source vertex from all other points in the graph.
Q.30 What is rule-based approach?
A rules-based approach to command prescribe in particular or gives a set of rules, how to work whereas a principle-based approach to regulation results and principles are established and the controls, procedures, measures, on how to achieve that result is left for each organisation to determine.
Q.31 How is Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence related?
Artificial Intelligence is a technique that enables machines to mimic human behavior. On the other hand, Machine Learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence. It is the science of getting computers to act by feeding them data and letting them learn a few tricks on their own, without being explicitly programmed to do so. Hence, we can say Machine Learning is a technique used to implement Artificial Intelligence.

Q.32 What is Fuzzy Logic Approach?
Fuzzy logic is an approach to computing based on “degrees of truth” rather than the usual “true or false” (1 or 0) boolean logic on which the modern computer is based. Fuzzy logic Systems can take imprecise, distorted, noisy input information.
Q.33 List the various areas where AI (Artificial Intelligence) can be used?
In many areas like: Computing, Speech recognition, Bio-informatics, Humanoid robot, Computer software, Space and Aeronautics’s etc. artificial intelligence can be used.
Q.34 Consider the alternate, artificial, compound and natural key, and explain what are they?
Alternate Key: All the candidate keys are known as Alternate Keys, excluding primary keys. Artificial Key: If no obvious key either stands alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to, simply create a key, by assigning a number to each record or occurrence. This is known as artificial key. Compound Key: When no single data element that uniquely defines the occurrence within a construct is there, then integrating multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as Compound Key. Natural Key: Natural key is one of the data element that is stored within a construct, which is utilized as the primary key.
Q.35 Give the best way to go for Game playing problem?
To go for game playing problem Heuristic approach is the best way, as it will use the technique based on intelligent guesswork. For better clearity lest take an example, Chess between humans and computers as it will use brute force computation, looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.
Q.36 Name the search method on which the Algorithm is based?
Name the search method on which thw Algorithm is based? An algorithm is based on best first search method, as it gives an idea of optimization and quick choose of path, and all characteristics lie in A* algorithm.
Q.37 What is involved in a Partial order or Planning?
In partial order planning , rather than searching over possible situation it involves searching over the space of possible plans. The basic idea behind this is to construct a plan piece by piece.
Q.38 What are the two different kinds of steps that can be taken in constructing a plan?
a) Add an operator (action) b) Add an ordering constraint between operators
Q.39 In an artificial intelligence, what is the difference between breadth first search and best first search?
These are the two strategies which are quite similar. In best first search, in accordance with the evaluation function, we expand the nodes. While, In accordance to the cost function of the parent node in breadth first search a node is expanded.
Q.40 If you have heard of frames and scripts in “Artificial Intelligence,” then explain what are they?
Frames are a variant of semantic networks which is one of the popular ways of representing non-procedural knowledge in an expert system. By representing “conventionalized situations’ to divide knowledge into substructure a frame which is an artificial data structure is used. Scripts are similar to frames, except the values that fill the slots must be ordered. To organize a knowledge base in terms of the situation that the system should understand, scripts are used in natural language understanding systems.
Q.41 What does the language of FOPL consists of

a) A set of constant symbols

b) A set of variables

c) A set of predicate symbols

d) A set of function symbols

e) The logical connective

f) The Universal Quantifier and Existential Qualifier

g) A special binary relation of equality

Q.42 What can be the consequence between a node and its predecessors while creating Bayesian Network?
While creating Bayesian Network, the consequence between a node and its predecessors is that a node can be conditionally independent of its predecessors.
Q.43 How the Bayesian network can be used?
If a Bayesian Network is a representative of the joint distribution, then it can solve any query by summing all the relevant joint entries.
Q.44 Inductive methods with the power of first order representations is combined by what?
Inductive logic programming combines inductive methods with the power of first order representations.
Q.45 What needed to be satisfied in Inductive Logic Programming?
To come up with a set of sentences for the hypothesis such that the entailment constraint is satisfied, is the objective of an Inductive Logic Programming.
Q.46 Why is Hidden Markov Model (HMMs) used?
For modelling time series data or to model sequence behaviour hidden Markov Models are a ubiquitous tool. In almost all current speech recognition systems, they are used.
Q.47 In Propositional Logic, how logical inference can be solved?
In Propositional Logic, Logical Inference algorithm can be solved by using: a) Logical Equivalence b) Validity c) Satisfying ability
Q.48 Name the process that makes different logical expression looks identical?
‘Unification’ process makes different logical expressions identical. Lifted inferences require finding substitute which can make a different expression looks identical. This whole Process is called unification.
Q.49 What is Turing test?
It is a method to test the machine’s ability to match the human level intelligence. To challenge the human intelligence a machine is used that when it passes the test, it is considered as intelligent. Yet without sufficiently knowing about people to mimic a human a machine could be viewed as intelligent.
Q.50 What is an expert system and its characteristics?
An artificial intelligence program that possesses an expert-level knowledge about a specific area and knows how to utilize its information to react appropriately. To substitute a human expert, these systems have expertise. Their characteristics include – High performance Adequate response time Reliability Understandable
Q.51 Can you please list the advantages of Expert system?
Yes, there are many advantages of Expert system: Consistency Memory Diligence Logic Multiple expertise Ability to reason Fast response Unbiased in nature
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