The objective of this standard is to describe principles for determination and presentation of earnings per share which will improve comparison of performance among different enterprises for the same period and among different accounting periods for the same enterprise.
Earnings per share (EPS) is a financial ratio indicating the amount of profit or loss for the period attributable to each equity share and AS 20 gives computational methodology for determination and presentation of basic and diluted earnings per share. This Statement should be applied by enterprises whose equity shares or potential equity shares are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India. An enterprise which has neither equity shares nor potential equity shares which are so listed but which discloses earnings per share should calculate and disclose earnings per share in accordance with this Statement.
Accounting Standards Interpretation (ASI 12):
Every company, which is required to give information under Part IV of Schedule VI to the
Companies Act, 1956, should calculate and disclose earnings per share in accordance with AS 20, whether or not its equity shares or potential equity shares are listed on a recognised stock exchange in India.
Definition of the terms used in the Accounting Standard
- An equity share is a share other than a preference share.
- A preference share is a share carrying preferential rights to dividends and repayment of capital.
- A financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to both a financial asset of one enterprise and a financial liability or equity shares of another enterprise.
For this purpose, a financial asset is any asset that is
- A contractual right to receive cash or another financial asset from another enterprise;
- A contractual right to exchange financial instruments with another enterprise under conditions that are potentially favourable; or
- An equity share of another enterprise.
- A financial liability is any liability that is a contractual obligation to deliver cash or another financial asset to another enterprise or to exchange financial instruments with another enterprise under conditions that are potentially unfavourable.
- A potential equity share is a financial instrument or other contract that entitles, or may entitle, its holder to equity shares.
Examples of potential equity shares are:
- Debt instruments or preference shares, that are convertible into equity shares;
- Share warrants;
- Options including employee stock option plans under which employees of an enterprise are entitled to receive equity shares as part of their remuneration and other similar plans; and
- Shares which would be issued upon the satisfaction of certain conditions resulting from contractual arrangements (contingently issuable shares), such as the acquisition of a business or other assets, or shares issuable under a loan contract upon default of payment of principal or interest, if the contract so provides.
Share warrants or options are financial instruments that give the holder the right to acquire equity shares.