Human Resource

Human resource management (HRM, or simply HR) is a function in organizations designed to maximize employee performance in service of their employer’s strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with how people are managed within organizations, focusing on policies and systems. HR departments and units in organizations are typically responsible for a number of activities, including employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and rewarding (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR is also concerned with industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with regulations arising from collective bargaining and governmental laws.

Human resource management is the process of organizing and effectively employing people in pursuit of organizational goals. Generic HR functions includes

  • Planning (needs assessments; forecasts)
  • Job analysis (resulting in job descriptions)
  • Recruiting and hiring (including screening and evaluation of candidates)
  • Orientation, training and staff development
  • Compensation and benefits; discipline and termination
  • Health and safety; working conditions
  • Labor relations
  • Counseling and outplacement assistance
  • Organizational change programs

Human Resource Planning

Human resource planning is a process through which the company anticipates future business and environmental forces. Human resources planning assess the manpower requirement for future period of time. It attempts to provide sufficient manpower required to perform organizational activities. HR planning is a continuous process which starts with identification of HR objectives, move through analysis of manpower resources and ends at appraisal of HR planning. Following are the major steps involved in human resource planning

  • Assessing Human Resources – The assessment of HR begins with environmental analysis, under which the external (PEST) and internal (objectives, resources and structure) are analyzed to assess the currently available HR inventory level. After the analysis of external and internal forces of the organization, it will be easier for HR manager to find out the internal strengths as well as weakness of the organization in one hand and opportunities and threats on the other. Moreover, it includes an inventory of the workers and skills already available within the organization and a comprehensive job analysis.
  • Demand Forecasting – HR forecasting is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HR in an organization. Demand forecasting is a process of determining future needs for HR in terms of quantity and quality. It is done to meet the future personnel requirements of the organization to achieve the desired level of output. Future human resource need can be estimated with the help of the organization’s current human resource situation and analysis of organizational plans and procedures. It will be necessary to perform year-by-year analysis for every significant level and type.
  • Supply Forecasting – Supply is another side of human resource assessment. It is concerned with the estimation of supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future availability of human resource in the organization. It estimates the future sources of HR that are likely to be available from within an outside the organization. Internal source includes promotion, transfer, job enlargement and enrichment, whereas external source includes recruitment of fresh candidates who are capable of performing well in the organization.
  • Matching Demand And Supply – It is another step of human resource planning. It is concerned with bringing the forecast of future demand and supply of HR. The matching process refers to bring demand and supply in an equilibrium position so that shortages and over staffing position will be solved. In case of shortages an organization has to hire more required number of employees. Conversely, in the case of over staffing it has to reduce the level of existing employment. Hence, it is concluded that this matching process gives knowledge about requirements and sources of HR.
  • Action Plan – It is the last phase of human resource planning which is concerned with surplus and shortages of human resource. Under it, the HR plan is executed through the designation of different HR activities. The major activities which are required to execute the HR plan are recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, socialization etc. Finally, this step is followed by control and evaluation of performance of HR to check whether the HR planning matches the HR objectives and policies. This action plan should be updated according to change in time and conditions.

Induction

Induction training is a type of training given as an initial preparation upon taking up a post. To help new people get to work initially after joining a firm, a brief programme of this training can be delivered to the new worker as a way to help integrate the new employee, both as a productive part of the business, and socially among other employees.

Proper orientation is needed for new joiners. New recruits have certain needs, and the organization also wants to ensure that their investment is properly handled, so the following actions should be taken with new staff and volunteers

  • provide basic information about the organization and event (e.g., use your business plan)
  • tours of venues, offices, suppliers, or whatever fits their potential jobs
  • meeting staff and other volunteers
  • introduction to organizational culture, mission, work styles, if appropriate
  • testing and screening, if needed for specific assignments

Training

Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life.

There are also additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that which is offered by their employers. Some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, and supportive services. One can generally categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job.

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