Doors and Windows


A door is a moving structure used to block off, and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space

Types of mechanism

Hinged doors – Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction, but not the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening.

Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward.

Sliding doors – It is often useful to have doors which slide along tracks, often for space or aesthetic considerations. A bypass door is a door unit that has two or more sections. The doors can slide in either direction along one axis on parallel overhead tracks, sliding past each other. They are most commonly used in closets, in order to access one side of the closet at a time. The doors in a bypass unit will overlap slightly when viewed from the front, in order not to have a visible gap between them. Doors which slide between two wall panels are called pocket doors.

Sliding glass doors are common in many houses, particularly as an entrance to the backyard. Such doors are also popular for use for the entrances to commercial structures, although they are not counted as fire exit doors. The door that moves is called the “active leaf”, while the door that remains fixed is called the “inactive leaf”.

Rotating doors – A revolving door has several wings or leaves, generally four, radiating from a central shaft, forming compartments that rotate about a vertical axis. A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding, and forms an airlock maintaining a seal between inside and out.

A pivot door, instead of hinges, is supported on a bearing some distance away from the edge, so that there is more or less of a gap on the pivot side as well as the opening side. In some cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings.

Automatic – Automatically opening doors are powered open and closed either by electricity, spring, or both. There are several methods by which an automatically opening door is activated:

  • A sensor detects traffic is approaching. Sensors for automatic doors are generally:
    • A pressure sensor – e.g., a floor mat which reacts to the pressure of someone standing on it.
    • An infrared curtain or beam which shines invisible light onto sensors; if someone or something blocks the beam the door is triggered open.
    • A motion sensor which uses low-power microwave radar for the same effect.
    • A remote sensor (e.g. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by a portable remote control, or is installed inside a vehicle. These are popular for garage doors.
  • A switch is operated manually, perhaps after security checks. This can be a push button switch or a swipe card.
  • The act of pushing or pulling the door triggers the open and close cycle. These are also known as power-assisted doors.

Entry doors can be made of wood, metal, or fiberglass. They range from straightforward panel doors to windowed doors (the windows are sometimes referred to as “lights”), with attractive muntins or removable grills. Increasingly you can find decorative carved-wood doors. These often have rails and stiles with a carved section in the middle. They are expensive but make a memorable impression.

Even the most tightly sealed entry door can benefit from the addition of a storm door. These are usually made of metal or vinyl, but wood models are also available. A security storm door can be locked to keep out intruders and may be heavier than a standard door. Self-storing storm doors have a window and screen. Inexpensive storm doors are often plain in design and can detract from the appearance of an entry door. You can pay more for a storm door that makes a design statement of its own, but perhaps the best choice is a storm door that unobtrusively frames your entry door.

Other types of doors, are

  • Patio sliding doors are typically made of large panes of glass encased in wood, vinyl, or metal frames. They are the ideal choice when you want to maximize your view of the yard. Compared with French doors they take up no floor space when open. A possible disadvantage is that they only open half as wide as the doorway.
  • The hinged single door is the most common type. The room design must allow space for hinged doors to swing. Interior doors typically are lightweight and have two hinges; exterior doors are heavy and often use three hinges. Interior doors are usually 1-3/8 inches thick, and exterior doors are commonly 1-3/4 inches thick.
  • A panel door is a classic style. It usually has three or four horizontal rails and three vertical stiles. The spaces between them are filled with thinner panels. Decorative molding (or some representation of it) called “sticking” surrounds each panel. The result is a richly textured look that is at home in both traditional and modern settings.
  • A flush door is a simple flat slab. It is usually the least expensive choice. If the surface is a hardwood veneer (usually birch or oak), a flush door can be stained, but other materials usually look best painted. Flush doors blend well with contemporary settings, but may look out of place in a traditional home. Interior flush doors are often hollow core, while exterior flush doors have a solid core and may have a metal or fiberglass face rather than wood veneer.
  • A pair of French doors adds a charming touch as well as an extra-wide doorway opening. These doors are almost always traditional in design. Often they have glass panels. They are most commonly used as exterior patio doors, but interior French doors can make a stunning passageway between rooms.
  • Many older homes have interior pocket doors, which slide into the wall when fully opened. They allow you to completely open the doorway without taking up any floor space. Pocket doors are making a comeback; many styles are available, single and double. A pocket door requires wall space that cannot have electrical or plumbing lines running through it.
  • For a closet that is 6 feet wide or wider, a pair of bifold doors is the most popular choice. Each door takes up about half the swinging space of a hinged door. Bifolds can be flush, paneled, or louvered.
  • Somewhat less common are bypass doors. These operate much like sliding patio doors but are far lighter in weight. They are generally flush doors.


A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound.

Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material. Windows are held in place by frames. Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. Windows often have a latch or similar mechanism to lock the window shut.


  • Eyebrow – The term eyebrow window is used in two ways: a curved top window in a wall or in an eyebrow dormer; and a row of small windows usually under the front eaves
  • Fixed – A window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter (unlike an unfixed window, which can open and close). Clerestory windows are often fixed. Transom windows may be fixed or operable. This type of window is used in situations where light or vision alone is needed as no ventilation is possible windows without the use of trickle vents or overglass vents.
  • Awning – An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning. In addition to be used independently, they can be stacked, several in one opening, or combined with fixed glass. They are particularly useful for ventilation.
  • Tilt and slide – A window (more usually a door-sized window) where the sash tilts inwards at the top and then slides horizontally behind the fixed pane.
  • Tilt and turn – A tilt and turn window can both tilt inwards at the top or open inwards from hinges at the side.

Glazing and filling – Low-emissivity coated panes reduce heat transfer by radiation, which, depending on which surface is coated, helps prevent heat loss (in cold climates) or heat gains (in warm climates).

High thermal resistance can be obtained by evacuating or filling the insulated glazing units with gases such as argon or krypton, which reduces conductive heat transfer due to their low thermal conductivity. Performance of such units depends on good window seals and meticulous frame construction to prevent entry of air and loss of efficiency.

Modern double-pane and triple-pane windows often include one or more low-e coatings to reduce the window’s U-factor (its insulation value, specifically its rate of heat loss). In general, soft-coat low coatings tend to result in a lower solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) than hard-coat low-e coatings.

Modern windows are usually glazed with one large sheet of glass per sash, while windows in the past were glazed with multiple panes separated by glazing bars, or muntins, due to the unavailability of large sheets of glass. Today, glazing bars tend to be decorative, separating windows into small panes of glass even though larger panes of glass are available, generally in a pattern dictated by the architectural style at use. Glazing bars are typically wooden, but occasionally lead glazing bars soldered in place are used for more intricate glazing patterns.


Most door-hardware components require maintenance at some point, due to general wear and tear from regular use. Among the most common types of repairs for these components are lubrication, adjustment, alignment and weather sealing.

Lubrication is required once every six months to a year, depending on the type of door and its level of use. Hinges and door closers should get a few drops of penetrating oil at the top so it runs down into the wearing surface between the pin and the housing. Lock mechanisms that need lubricant should get a shot of dry graphite from a spout-type bottle.

In addition to simply providing lubrication for door hardware, this step prevents freezing in cold weather. A good time to schedule lubrication is just before cold weather starts. Technicians should not lubricate electronic locks because graphite is an insulator and will interfere with current flow through contacts.

Regarding adjustments, the two parts of a door that most often require attention are hinges and closers. During lubrication, technicians should check hinge screws for tightness. In time, wood door frames dry out and screw holes open up, so the screw continues turning. When this happens, technicians should fill the hole with appropriate hardening filler, redrill the hole and replace the screw — or place a screw insert in the hole and replace the screw.

Closers operate either pneumatically using air or hydraulically using oil. Over time, the door begins to bang against the stop or does not close all the way. Technicians can correct this problem by adjusting the screw on the cylinder. This step regulates the stroke so the door just closes against the stop without banging or leaving a gap.

Closers come with installation and adjusting instructions and parts lists. Managers should file these and give them to the tradesperson when making the preventive maintenance assignment, a move that will save technicians a great deal of time at the job site trying to figure out how the mechanism works. This job is probably not going to be done very often, so the operation of each different type of closer or lock will be only vaguely familiar to the tradesperson, even if the same person does it every year.

Doors and windows have two main parts one is frame and other is shutter. There are ready made doors and windows available in the market but in some cases these are made locally by the house owner. To obtain good quality door and window both in material and manufacturing some guide lines or check list to be followed which are as under.

Wooden door and window

  • Ensure that timber/ wood used in door and window frame and shutters should be free from sapwood, decay, cracks, shakes and dead knots.
  • Ensure that the size of frame is accurate according to size given in the drawing.
  • See that design and specification of shutter is according to drawing and requirement.
  • Ensure the door and window shutters should be fabricated by using machine and size of components are as under. Bottom rail=200 mm, Lock rail=150mm, Side and top rail=100mm, panel 12mm.
  • In case of ply or block board panel, ensure that the ply is water proof of reputed firm.
  • Ensure the finishing of frame and shutter is up to the mark i.e. line, level, smoothness and planning.
  • Check the joints which should be properly glued and secured with bamboo pins.
  • Check that the portion of frame coming in contact of the wall is well treated with wooden preservative.
  • At the time of fixing frame, check the size of hold fast and the hold fast filled with cement concrete.
  • Check the size and thickness of panel, glass, putty, beading, ply and glue are proper as per specification.
  • At the time of fixing door and window shutter in frame, see the screws are of proper size and tight with screwdriver not hammered.

Iron Door and windows

  • Ensure that the members of door and window should be free from rust, cracks and surface flaws.
  • Check that steel members should be from repudiated firm and bear manufacturer stamps on the surface of steel member.
  • Check the size and design should be according to drawing and requirement.
  • Check that door and window individual member must be in one length, joints will not acceptable.
  • Check that welding on joints should be through not in touch form and joints should be made smooth by grinding. The cutting and drilling should be done by machine not by hand tool.
  • See that there is not any welding material chip on the surface.
  • At the time of fixing see that the hold fast are proper fixed with cement concrete in wall.
  • The door and window should be in plumb and line.
  • See that the back side hollow portion of pressed steel frame should be filled with cement concrete.

Aluminum Door and windows

  • Ensure that the Aluminum door and window frames should be made by reputed local workshop using machines.
  • Check that the members should be from standard sections and from repudiated firm.
  • Check that the fasteners used should be zinc plated. The cutting and drilling should be done by machine not by hand tool.
  • See that while fixing the aluminum frames, steel screws should be used instead of iron screws.
  • Ensure that the corners of door and window are at right angle.
  • See that while fixing the frame, the frame should be in straight line and in plumb.
  • Ensure that the aluminum doors and windows frame should be free from cracks, surface flaws.

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