The cost of an investment includes acquisition charges such as brokerage, fees and duties etc. If an investment is acquired, or partly acquired, by the issue of shares or other securities or another asset, the acquisition cost is the fair value of the securities issued or assets given up. The fair value may not necessarily be equal to the nominal or par value of the securities issued. It may be appropriate to consider the fair value of the investment acquired if it is more clearly evident.
Interest, dividends and rentals receivables in connection with an investment are generally regarded as income, being the return on the investment. However, in some circumstances, such inflows represent a recovery of cost and do not form part of income. If it is difficult to make such an allocation except on an arbitrary basis, the cost of investment is normally reduced by dividends receivable only if they clearly represent a recovery of a part of the cost.
When right shares offered are subscribed for, the cost of the right shares is added to the carrying amount of the original holding. If rights are not subscribed for but are sold in the market, the sale proceeds are taken to the profit and loss statement. However, where the investments are acquired on cum-right basis and the market value of investments immediately after their becoming ex-right is lower than the cost for which they were acquired, it may be appropriate to apply the sale proceeds of rights to reduce the carrying amount of such investments to the market value.
Carrying Amount of Investments
The carrying amount for current investments is the lower of cost and fair value.
Any reduction in realisable value is debited to profit and loss account, however if realisable value of investment is increased subsequently, the increase in value of current investment to the level of the cost is credited to profit and loss account.
Long-term investments are usually carried at cost. Where there is a decline, other than temporary, in the carrying amounts of long term valued investments, the resultant reduction in the carrying amount is charged to the profit and loss statement. The reduction in carrying amount is reversed when there is a rise in the value of the investment, or if the reasons for the reduction no longer exist.