MS EXCEL 2003

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

MS EXCEL 2003

Excel 2003 is the spreadsheet software in the Microsoft 2003 Office Suite. It allows you to store, organize, and analyze numerical information.

Microsoft Excel is a commercial spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has almost completely replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office. The current versions are 2010 for Microsoft Windows and 2011 for Mac OS X.

It includes –

Wireless network

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

Wireless network

Imagine sitting on the couch in your living room surfing the web, or chatting with friends online while relaxing in bed at night, or sending documents from the computer in the kitchen to the printer in your home office. A wireless network provides the ultimate in networking flexibility, and setting one up is easier than you might think. This article walks you through the steps to set up your wireless network and start using it.

Getting the right equipment

Before you can set up your wireless network, you need the following items:

Broadband Internet connection and modem

A broadband Internet connection is a high-speed Internet connection—in contrast to a dial-up connection, which is slower and not powerful enough to support a wireless network. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable are two of the most common broadband connections. You can get a broadband connection by contacting an Internet service provider (ISP). Typically, ISPs that provide DSL are telephone companies and ISPs that provide cable are cable TV companies. ISPs often offer broadband modems and might even install it for you. Some ISPs also offer combination modem/wireless routers. You can also find these at computer or electronics stores.

Illustration of a cable and DSL modemTypical cable modem (left) and DSL modem (right)

Wireless router

A router sends information between your network and the Internet. With a wireless router, you can connect computers to your network using radio signals instead of wires. There are a few different types of wireless network technologies, including 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n. We recommend using a router that supports 802.11g or 802.11n because they are fast and can provide a strong wireless signal.

Illustration of a wireless routerTypical wireless router

Wireless network adapters

A network adapter is a device that connects your computer to a network. To connect your mobile PC or desktop computer to your wireless network, the computer must have a wireless network adapter. Most mobile PCs—and many desktop computers—come with a wireless network adapter already installed. To check if your computer has a wireless network adapter, follow these steps:

  1. Open Device Manager by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, and then clicking Device Manager.‌ Administrator permission required If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
  2. Next to Network adapters, click the plus sign (+).
  3. Look for a network adapter that includes “wireless” in the name.
Picture of Device Manager with a wireless network adapterDevice Manager showing a wireless network adapter

If your computer needs a wireless network adapter, you can purchase one from a computer or electronics store and install it yourself. The universal serial bus (USB) type are a nice choice because they are small, easy to install, and they can be moved around to different computers. Make sure that you get the same type of adapters as your wireless router. The type of adapter is usually marked on the package, typically with a letter, such as G or A.

Illustration of USB wireless network adaptersTypical USB wireless network adapters

Setting up the modem and Internet connection

Once you have all of the equipment, you need to set up your modem and Internet connection. If your modem was not set up for you by your Internet service provider (ISP), follow the instructions that came with your modem to connect it to your computer and the Internet. If you are using Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), connect your modem to a phone jack. If you are using cable, connect your modem to a cable jack.

Positioning the wireless router

You’ll want to put your wireless router somewhere where it will receive the strongest signal with the least amount of interference. For the best results, follow these tips:

  • Position your wireless router in a central location. Place the router as close to the center of your home as possible to increase the strength of the wireless signal throughout your home.
  • Position the wireless router off of the floor and away from walls and metal objects, such as metal file cabinets. The fewer physical obstructions between your computer and the router’s signal, the more likely that you’ll be using the router’s full signal strength.
  • Reduce interference. 802.11g networking equipment uses a 2.4 gigahertz (GHz) radio frequency. This is the same frequency as most microwaves and many cordless phones. If you turn on the microwave or get a call on a cordless phone, your wireless signal might be temporarily interrupted. You can avoid most of these issues by using a cordless phone with a higher frequency, such as 5.8 GHz.

Securing your wireless network

Security is always important; with a wireless network, it is even more important because your network’s signal could go beyond the boundaries of your home. If you don’t secure your network, people with computers nearby might be able to access the information stored on your network computers and use your Internet connection to get onto the web. To help secure your network, do the following:

  • Protect your router by changing the default user name and password. Most router manufacturers have a default user name and password on the router as well as a default network name. Someone could use this information to access your router without you knowing it. To avoid that risk, change the default user name and password for your router. Check the information that came with your device for instructions.
  • Set up a security key for your network. Just as file cabinets have keys and safes have combinations, wireless networks have a network security key to help protect them from unauthorized access. To set up a network security key, follow these steps:
    1. Open Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking Network and Internet, and then clicking Network and Sharing Center.
    2. In the left pane, click Set up a connection or network.
    3. Click Set up a wireless router or access point, and then click Next.

    The wizard will walk you through creating a network name and a security key. If your router will support it, the wizard will default to Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) security. We recommend that you use WPA because it offers better security than the traditional Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) security. With WPA you can also use a passphrase, so you don’t have to remember a cryptic sequence of letters and numbers.

    Picture of Set up a router or access point wizardCreate a network security key by entering a passphrase

    Make sure that you write down the security key and keep it in a safe place. If you have one, you can also save your security key on a USB flash drive by following the instructions in the wizard.

  • Use a firewall. A firewall is hardware or software that can help protect your computer from hackers or malicious software. Running a firewall on each computer on your network can help control the spread of malicious software on your network, as well as help to protect your computers when you’re accessing the Internet. Windows Firewall is included with Windows Vista

Adding computers to your network

To connect your laptop or desktop computer to your wireless network, follow these steps:

  1. Open Connect to a Network by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, and then clicking Connect to.
  2. In the list of networks, click the network that you want to connect to, and then click Connect.
  3. Enter the security key. You can either type in the key or insert a USB flash drive that contains the security key into a USB port on the computer.

Sharing files and printers

Most people have a wireless network so they can access the Internet from any room in the house, but they also want the freedom of accessing files and printers wirelessly.

Note

Note

The ability to share files and printers is not included in Windows Vista Starter.

Sharing files

The easiest way to share files on your network is to place them in the Public folder. Any file or folder you put in the Public folder is automatically shared with the people connected to your network. To turn on Public folder sharing, follow these steps:

  1. Open Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking Network and Internet, and then clicking Network and Sharing Center.
  2. Click the arrow button Picture of the arrow button next to Public folder sharing, and then click one of the following options:
    • Turn on sharing so anyone with network access can open files
    • Turn on sharing so anyone with network access can open, change, and create files
    • Turn off sharing (people logged on to this computer can still access this folder)
  3. Click Apply.You will need to repeat the steps above on each computer that you want to share files from.To share your files, save them or copy them to the Public folder on your computer. There is one Public folder on each computer. Every person with a user account on the computer shares this folder. To open the Public folder:
    1. Open Documents by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, and then clicking Documents.
    2. In the Navigation pane, under Favorite Links, click Public.
    Picture of the Public folderThe Public folder

Sharing a printer

If you have a printer attached to one of your computers, you can print to it from any computer connected to your wireless network. To share a printer, follow these steps:

  1. Log on to computer that has the printer attached to it.
  2. Open Network and Sharing Center by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking Control Panel, clicking Network and Internet, and then clicking Network and Sharing Center.
  3. Click the arrow button Picture of the arrow button next to Printer sharing, click Turn on printer sharing, and then click Apply.
  4. Click the arrow button Picture of the arrow button next to Password protected sharing, click Turn off password protected sharing, and then click Apply.
Note

Note

If you have password-protected sharing turned on, people will need a user account with a password on your computer to access your printer.

To access the printer from any computer on the network, follow these steps:

  1. Open Network by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, and then clicking Network.
  2. Double-click the icon for the computer that has the printer attached to it.
  3. Double-click the icon for the printer. Windows will automatically add the printer to your computer and install the printer driver.

Enjoying your freedom

And that’s it—your wireless network is ready to go. Relax on the couch or out on the deck and do some online shopping.

E-mail

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

E-mail

E-mail (short for electronic mail) is a fast and convenient way to communicate with others. You can use e-mail to:
  • Send and receive text messages. You can send an e-mail message to any person with an e-mail address. The message arrives in the recipient’s e-mail inbox within seconds or minutes—whether he or she is your next-door neighbor or lives halfway around the world.E-mail is two-way. You can receive messages from anyone who knows your e-mail address, and then read and reply to those messages.
  • Send and receive files. Besides text, you can send almost any type of file in an e-mail message, including documents, pictures, and music. A file sent in an e-mail message is called an attachment.
  • Send messages to groups of people. You can send an e-mail message to many people simultaneously. Recipients can reply to the whole group, allowing for group discussions.
  • Forward messages. When you receive an e-mail message, you can forward it to others without retyping it.

One advantage of e-mail over the telephone or regular mail is its convenience: You can send a message at any time of day or night. If the recipients aren’t in front of their computers and online (connected to the Internet) when you send the message, they’ll find it waiting for them the next time they check their e-mail. If they are online, you might get a reply within minutes.

E-mail is also free. Unlike sending a regular letter, no stamp or fee is required, no matter where the recipient lives. The only charges that apply are those that you pay for an Internet connection.

What do I need before I can use e-mail?

To use e-mail, you need three things:

  • An Internet connection. To connect your computer to the Internet, you must first sign up with an Internet service provider (ISP). An ISP provides you with access to the Internet, usually for a monthly fee. You also need a modem.
  • An e-mail program or web-based service. You can use Windows Mail, an e-mail program included with Windows. You can also use any other e-mail program, once you install it on your computer.If you prefer, you can sign up instead with a free web-based e-mail service, such as Gmail, MSN Hotmail, or Yahoo! Mail. These services allow you to check your e-mail with a web browser from any computer connected to the Internet.
  • An e-mail address. You get an e-mail address from your ISP or web-based e-mail service when you sign up. An e-mail address consists of a user name (a nickname you choose, not necessarily your real name), the @ sign, and the name of your ISP or web-based e-mail provider—for example, someone@example.com.

Setting up Windows Mail

Once you have an e-mail address and an Internet connection, you’re ready to send and receive e-mail. To use e-mail in WindowsMail, you must first set up an e-mail account. Before you add an account, you’ll need to get some information from your ISP: your e-mail address, password, the names of your incoming and outgoing e-mail servers, and certain other details.

To add an e-mail account in Windows Mail

  1. Open Windows Mail by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, clicking All Programs, and then clicking Windows Mail.
  2. On the Tools menu, click Accounts.
  3. Click Add, click E-mail Account, click Next, and then follow the instructions.

During setup, you’ll be asked to pick a display name. This is the name that recipients will see when you send them an e-mail message.

Reading e-mail messages

Windows Mail checks to see if you’ve received e-mail whenever you start the program and every 30 minutes after that. E-mail you receive appears in your Inbox. The Inbox is one of several folders that hold e-mail.

To see a list of e-mail you’ve received, click Inbox in the Folders list. Your e-mail messages appear in the message list. The list shows who sent the mail, the subject, and when it was received.

To read a message, click it in the message list. The contents of the message appear below the message list in the Preview pane. To read the message in a separate window, double-click it in the message list.

Picture of Windows Mail showing the folder list, message list, and Preview paneClick the Inbox to see your e-mail messages

To reply to a message, click the Reply button. To learn how to write and send a reply, see “Creating and sending an e-mail message” in this article.

 

Creating and sending e-mail messages

To create a new e-mail message in Windows Mail, click the Create Mail button. A new message window opens.

Picture of a sample e-mail messageSample e-mail message

Here’s how to fill out the message window in Windows Mail and most other e-mail programs:

  1. In the To box, type the e-mail address of at least one recipient. If you’re sending the message to multiple recipients, type a semicolon (;) between e-mail addresses.In the Cc box, you can type the e-mail addresses of any secondary recipients—people who should know about the message but don’t need to act on it. They’ll receive the same message as the people in the To box. If there are no secondary recipients, leave this box blank.
  2. In the Subject box, type a title for your message.
  3. In the large blank area, type your message.
    To attach a file to the message, click the Attach File to Message button Picture of the Attach File to Message button on the toolbar (located just below the menu bar). Locate the file, select it, and then click Open. The file now appears in the Attach box in the message header.
Picture of a file attached to an e-mail messageFile attached to an e-mail message

You’re done! To send the message, click the Send button. It zips through the Internet to your recipients.

Note

Note

To change the style, font, size, or color of the text, select the text, and then click one of the buttons on the formatting bar (located just above the message area).

 

E-mail etiquette

Like telephone conversations and face-to-face communication, e-mail communication has certain implied rules of behavior. These rules are referred to as e-mail etiquette or netiquette (a combination of “Internet” and “etiquette”). For effective communication, follow these guidelines:

  • Be careful with humor and emotion. E-mail does not convey emotion well, so the recipient might not understand your intended tone. Sarcastic humor is particularly risky because the recipient might interpret it literally and take offense. To convey emotion, consider using emoticons (see “Using emoticons” in this article).
  • Think before you send. Writing and sending an e-mail message is fast and easy—sometimes too easy. Make sure you’ve thought out your message first, and avoid writing when you’re angry. Once you send the message, you can’t get it back.
  • Use a clear and concise subject line. Summarize the contents of the message in a few words. People who receive a large amount of e-mail can use the subject to prioritize the message.
  • Keep messages short. Although an e-mail message can be of any length, e-mail is designed for quick communication. Many people don’t have the time or patience to read more than a few paragraphs.
  • Avoid using ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. Many people perceive sentences written in all uppercase letters as “yelling” and find it annoying or offensive.
  • Be careful with sensitive or confidential information. Any recipient can forward your message to others—either intentionally or accidentally.

Additionally, in formal or business communication, avoid spelling and grammatical errors. Sloppy e-mail conveys an unprofessional image. Proofread your messages before you send them, and if your e-mail program has a spelling checker, use it.

Using emoticons

Because it’s often difficult to convey emotion, intent, or tone through text alone, early Internet users invented emoticons (a combination of “emotion” and “icons”)—sequences of keyboard characters that symbolize facial expressions. For example, :)looks like a smiling face when you look at it sideways. Below are some examples of emoticons.

EmoticonMeaning
🙂 or 🙂Smiling, happy, or joking
🙁 or 🙁Frowning or unhappy
😉Winking
😐Indifferent or ambivalent
😮Surprised or concerned
😡Not saying anything
:-pSticking out your tongue (usually in fun)
😀Laughing

Dealing with junk e-mail

Just as you might receive unsolicited advertisements, flyers, and catalogs in your regular mail, you’ll probably receive junk e-mail (often called spam) in your Inbox. Junk e-mail might include advertisements, fraudulent schemes, pornography, or legitimate offers. Because it’s very inexpensive for marketers to send junk e-mail, it’s not uncommon for people to receive a large amount of it.

Windows Mail includes a junk e-mail filter that analyzes the content of messages sent to you and moves suspicious messages to a special junk e-mail folder, where you can view or delete them at any time. And if a junk e-mail message slips past the filter into your Inbox, you can specify that any future messages from the sender be automatically moved to the junk e-mail folder.

To help prevent junk e-mail:

  • Use caution in giving out your e-mail address. Avoid publishing your real e-mail address in newsgroups, on websites, or in other public areas of the Internet.
  • Before you give your e-mail address to a website, check the site’s privacy statement to be sure it does not permit the disclosure of your e-mail address to other companies.
  • Never reply to a junk e-mail message. The sender will know that your e-mail address is valid and might sell it to other companies. You’re then likely to receive even more junk e-mail.

Internet

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

Internet

This information applies to Windows Internet Explorer 7 and Windows Internet Explorer 8.

The Internet is a network that links millions of computers around the world. Not so long ago, few people had heard of the Internet. Today, the Internet has revolutionized how people use computers. Many people depend on it daily to communicate with others and to get the information they need. You don’t have to connect your computer to the Internet, but once you do, you’ll probably wonder how you lived without it.

What is the web?

The part of the Internet that most people are familiar with is the World Wide Web (usually called the Web, or web). The web is so popular that people often use the terms Internet and web to mean the same thing. But the Internet also includes other services, such as e-mail, newsgroups, and file sharing. You can send an e-mail message or participate in a newsgroup without using the web.

The web displays information in a colorful, visually appealing format. Headlines, text, and pictures can be combined on a singlewebpage (or page)—much like a page in a magazine—along with sounds and animation. A website (or site) is a collection of interconnected webpages. The web contains millions of websites and billions of webpages!

Example of a webpage (Microsoft Game Studios)

Webpages are connected to each other with hyperlinks (usually just called links), which can be text or images. When you click a link on a page, you are taken to a different page. Going from page to page using links is sometimes called surfing the web.

What can I do on the Internet?

Find information. The web contains a vast amount of information—far more than even the world’s largest libraries. For example, you can read news stories and movie reviews, check airline schedules, see street maps, get the weather forecast for your city, or research a health condition. Reference sources, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias, are widely available, as are historical documents and classic literature.

Most companies, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, museums, and libraries have websites with information about their products, services, or collections. Many individuals publish websites with personal journals called blogs (short for web logs) about their hobbies and interests.

Note

Even though the web is great for research, not all information on the web is reliable. Information on some websites might be inaccurate, out of date, or incomplete. Before you trust information, make sure it comes from an authoritative source, and check other sources to verify the information.

Communicate. E-mail is one of the most popular uses of the Internet. You can send an e-mail message to anyone with an e-mail address, and it will arrive almost instantly in the recipient’s e-mail inbox—even if he or she lives halfway around the world.

Instant messaging (IM) allows you to have a real-time conversation with another person or a group of people. When you type and send an instant message, the message is immediately visible to all participants. Unlike e-mail, all participants have to be online (connected to the Internet) and in front of their computers at the same time.

Newsgroups and web-based forums allow you to participate in text-based discussions with a community of other people who are interested in the same topic. For example, if you are having trouble using a program, you could post a question in a discussion group for users of that program.

Share. You can upload (copy) pictures from your digital camera to a photo-sharing website. Invited friends and family members can then visit the website to view your photo albums.

Shop. The web is the world’s biggest shopping mall. You can browse and purchase products—books, music, toys, clothing, electronics, and much more—at the websites of major retailers (usually a credit card is required). You can also buy and sell used items through websites that use auction-style bidding.

Play. You can play games of every type on the web, often against other players—no matter where they are in the world. Many games are free, and you can download others for a fee. You can also listen to Internet radio stations, watch movie clips, and download or purchase music, videos, and even some TV shows.

Connecting to the Internet

To connect your computer to the Internet, you must first sign up with an Internet service provider (ISP). An ISP provides access to the Internet, usually for a monthly fee. You sign up for an account with an ISP just as you do for telephone service or utilities. To find an ISP in your area, try looking in your telephone directory under “Internet Service Providers.”

Different ISPs offer different connection types and speeds. There are two basic types of connections:

Broadband. A broadband connection is a high-speed Internet connection. With a broadband connection, you are connected to the Internet at all times and can view webpages and download files very rapidly. Two common broadband technologies are Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and cable technology. These require a DSL or cable modem, which is often provided by your ISP.

Dial-up. A dial-up connection uses a dial-up modem to connect your computer to the Internet through a standard telephone line. Many computers come with a dial-up modem already installed. In contrast to broadband, dial-up is slower and requires you to establish a new connection each time you want to use the Internet. However, dial-up is less expensive than broadband, and in some areas might be the only option for Internet access.

Once you have an ISP and a modem, you’re ready to connect to the Internet. The Connect to the Internet wizard will guide you through the steps.

  • Open the Connect to the Internet wizard by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Network and Internet, clicking Network and Sharing Center, clicking Set up a connection or network, and then clicking Connect to the Internet.

Getting on the web

Once you’ve established an Internet connection, you can access the web using Internet Explorer, a web browser included withWindows. You can also use any other web browser installed on your computer.

To start Internet Explorer

  • Open Internet Explorer by clicking the Start button , and then clicking Internet Explorer.

When you start Internet Explorer, it opens whatever webpage is set as the home page. By default, the home page is set to MSN.com, a Microsoft website with links to a variety of information and services. (Your computer manufacturer might have set up a different home page.) However, you can choose any page (or a blank page) as your home page.

Tip

To get back to your home page at any time, click the Home button  in Internet Explorer.

Entering a web address

Just as every residence has a unique street address, every webpage has its own web address. That address is called the URL. For example, the URL for the Microsoft main website is http://www.microsoft.com.

If you know the URL for a page, you can type it directly into Internet Explorer:

  1. In the Address box, type the URL.
  2. Click the Go button or press ENTER to go to the website.
Use the Address box to type URLs

Tips

  • You don’t have to type http://. For example, you can type www.microsoft.com and Internet Explorer will fill in the rest.
  • To quickly enter a URL ending in “.com”, type the part between “www.” and “.com” and then press CTRL+ENTER.

Basic navigation

Using links. Most webpages have dozens or even hundreds of links. To get from one page to another, click any link. However, figuring out which things on a page are links isn’t always easy. Links can be text, images, or a combination of both. Text links often appear as colored and underlined, but link styles vary among websites.

To test whether something is a link or not, point to it. If it’s a link, two things happen:

  • The mouse pointer changes to a hand with a pointing finger.
  • A URL appears in the status bar of your web browser. This shows the website you’ll go to if you click the link.
Pointing to a link changes the mouse pointer and displays the webpage’s URL in the status bar

Using the Back and Forward buttons. As you go from page to page, Internet Explorer keeps track of your trail. To get back to the previous page, click the Back button. Click the Back button several times to retrace your steps even further. After you’ve clicked the Back button, you can click the Forward button to go forward in the trail.

Back button (left); Forward button (right)

Using the Recent Pages menu. If you want to get back to a page you’ve visited in your current session, but want to avoid repeatedly clicking the Back or Forward buttons, use the Recent Pages menu. Click the arrow next to the Forward button, and then select a page from the list.

The Recent Pages menu

Searching the web

With billions of webpages out there, finding the information you need would be impossible if you had to browse through each one. Fortunately, there’s another way. You can use a search engine to find the pages that are most relevant to words or phrases that you specify.

Major web search engines include Google, Yahoo! Search, MSN Search, AOL Search, and Ask.com. You can search the web directly from any search engine’s site. Or, to save the step of navigating to the search site first, you can use the Search box in Internet Explorer, shown here:

Search box

Before you use the Search box for the first time, choose a default search provider—the search engine Internet Explorer uses each time you search. If you don’t choose a search provider, Bing is used. (Your computer manufacturer might have set up a different default search provider.)

To search the web using the Search box

  1. In the Search box, type a few words or a phrase about a topic that interests you—for example, “chocolate cake recipe.” Be as specific as you can.
  2. Press ENTER or click the Search button .

    A page of search results appears. Click one of the results to go to that website. If you don’t see what you’re looking for, clickNext at the bottom of the page to see more results, or try a new search.

Note

Be aware that some search results are paid advertisements. These are usually labeled as “Sponsored Sites” or “Sponsored Links.”

Saving favorite webpages

When you discover a website that you’d like to return to regularly, save it as a favorite in Internet Explorer. That way, when you want to return to the website, you can click it in your Favorites list, without having to remember or type its web address.

To save a webpage as a favorite in Internet Explorer 8

  1. In Internet Explorer 8, go to the webpage you want to save as a favorite.
  2. Click the Favorites button, and then click Add to Favorites.
  3. In the Name box, type a name for the webpage, and then click Add.

To save a webpage as a favorite in Internet Explorer 7

  1. In Internet Explorer 7, go to the webpage you want to save as a favorite.
  2. Click the Add to Favorites button , and then click Add to Favorites.
  3. In the Name box, type a name for the webpage, and then click Add.

To open a favorite in Internet Explorer 8

  1. In Internet Explorer 8, click the Favorites button.
  2. Click the Favorites tab if it’s not already selected.
  3. In the Favorites list, click the webpage that you want to open.

To open a favorite in Internet Explorer 7

  1. In Internet Explorer 7, click the Favorites Center button .
  2. Click the Favorites button if it’s not already selected.
  3. In the Favorites list, click the webpage that you want to open.

If you have a lot of favorites, you can organize them into folders. Managing your Internet Explorer Favorites.

Using the History list in Internet Explorer 8

To see any webpage you’ve visited in the last 20 days, you can use the History list:

  1. In Internet Explorer 8, click the Favorites button.
  2. Click the History tab if it’s not already selected.
  3. In the History list, click a day or week, and then click a website name. The list expands to show individual webpages that you’ve visited on the website.
  4. Click the webpage that you want to open.
The History list in Internet Explorer 8

Using the History list in Internet Explorer 7

To see any webpage you’ve visited in the last 20 days, you can use the History list:

  1. In Internet Explorer 7, click the Favorites Center button.
  2. Click the History button if it’s not already selected.
  3. In the History list, click a day or week, and then click a website name. The list expands to show individual webpages that you’ve visited on the website.
  4. Click the webpage that you want to open.

For more information about the History list, Clear the history of websites you’ve visited and Change the number of days that webpages are kept in the browsing history.

Opening multiple webpages

At some point, you’ll find yourself wanting to open a second (or third or fourth) webpage without closing the first one. To meet this need, Internet Explorer lets you create a tab for each new page you want to open. You can use the tabs to switch quickly between pages, and you can even view all of your pages at once.

To open a webpage on a new tab, click the New Tab button.

New Tab button

After you click the button, a blank page opens on a new tab.

A blank page on a new tab

Now you can open any webpage by typing a URL, using the search box, or choosing from your Favorites list or History list. Once you have multiple pages open, click the tabs to switch between pages.

To see all of your open webpages at once, click the Quick Tabs button . You’ll see a miniature version of each webpage. Click one to switch to that page.
Use Quick Tabs to see all of your open webpages
To close a tab, click the Close‌  button on the right side of the tab.

Networking Concepts

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

Networking Concepts

Networking of computers mean interconnection of two or more computers or computer peripherals, which are joined by some type of communication media.

Advantages Of networking

  • Sharing of data
  • Sharing of peripherals
  • High communication speed
  • High communication accuracy
  • Interactive data transfer
  • Lower cost

There are different types of networks. They are classified according to the geographical area they can cover, as

  • LAN (Local Area Network)
  • WAN (Wide Area Network)

Topology
Topology means the manner in which various physical devices are connected in a network. Some topologies are

  • Bus
  • Ring
  • Star

Internet
It is an example of WAN (Wide Area Network). It is a very huge network and is also known as worldwide network of networks.

Intranet
It is WAN which uses Internet for transmission of data. It interconnects various offices of a company.

Data Processing Concepts

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

Data Processing Concepts

Data processing means processing or manipulation of data as required by the user. Data is processed in various cycle in a computer, which are

Input Cycle
In this phase of data processing data is prepared in a suitable format.

Processing Cycle
In this phase of data processing as per the user’s instructions is done.

Output Cycle
This is the last phase of data processing. In it the processed data is given to the user

Virus

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

Virus

A computer virus is small block of coded instructions to obtain control of PC’s CPU and directs it to perform unusual and often destructive actions. They are of types –

  • BOOT INFECTORS
  • SYSTEM INFECTORS
  • GENERAL EXECUTABLE PROGRAM INFECTORS

WORMS
A worm is a destructive program that is designed to adulterate database either all at once or over a period of time. It is very similar to the logic bomb.
HOW DO VIRUSES SPREAD?
Viruses spread through floppies, e-mails, Internet downloads and other networks.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND TREATMENT
There are various things one can do to prevent viral infection in a computer system. These are

  • Sharing of software so as to limit the information flow.
  • Limit transitivity
  • Limit functionality
  • Use the scanner and virus remover
  • Observe whether the working of computer system is slowing down
  • Watch for unusually large sizes on program files
  • Watch for unusual displays on the computer screen
  • Make sure that there is virus protection software on local hosts, application and file servers.

Working of a Slide Show

Certify and Increase Opportunity.
Be
Govt. Certified Computer Fundamentals MS Office

Working of a Slide Show

The slide show can have a few more settings apart from the default ones in a slide show, the slides fill the screen and all the screen elements like menus and tools are hidden.

For setting up a Slide Show

  • From the Slide Show menu, select Set up Show. A Set up Show dialog box appears as shown in the dialog box as under.
  • Select all to show all slides in the presentation or select from and then enter a slide range.
  • In the Show Type options, select as appropriate.
  • Click OK.

For setting Slide Timings
Separate timings can be set for all the slides in the presentation. Slides are displayed for the length of time set for it.